Comparative characterization of fungal anthracenone and naphthacenedione biosynthetic pathways reveals an α-hydroxylation-dependent claisen-like cyclization catalyzed by a dimanganese thioesterase

Y. Li, Heng Chooi, Y. Sheng, J.S. Valentine, Y. Tang

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Abstract

The linear tetracyclic TAN-1612 (1) and BMS-192548 (2) were isolated from different filamentous fungal strains and have been examined as potential neuropeptide Y and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, respectively. Although the biosynthesis of fungal aromatic polyketides has attracted much interest in recent years, the biosynthetic mechanism for such naphthacenedione-containing products has not been established. Using a targeted genome mining approach, we first located the ada gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 in Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015. The connection between 1 and the ada pathway was verified through overexpression of the Zn 2Cys 6-type pathway-specific transcriptional regulator AdaR and subsequent gene expression analysis. The enzymes encoded in the ada gene cluster share high sequence similarities to the known apt pathway linked to the biosynthesis of anthraquinone asperthecin 3. Subsequent comparative investigation of these two highly homologous gene clusters by heterologous pathway reconstitution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a novel α-hydroxylation-dependent Claisen cyclization cascade, which involves a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that hydroxylates the α-carbon of an acyl carrier protein-bound polyketide and a bifunctional metallo-β-lactamase-type thioesterase (MβL-TE). The bifunctional MβL-TE catalyzes the fourth ring cyclization to afford the naphthacenedione scaffold upon α-hydroxylation, whereas it performs hydrolytic release of an anthracenone product in the absence of α-hydroxylation. Through in vitro biochemical characterizations and metal analyses, we verified that the apt MβL-TE is a dimanganese enzyme and requires both Mn 2+ cations for the observed activities. The MβL-TE is the first example of a thioesterase in polyketide biosynthesis that catalyzes the Claisen-like condensation without an α/β hydrolase fold and forms no covalent bond with the substrate. These mechanistic features should be general to the biosynthesis of tetracyclic naphthacenedione compounds in fungi. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15773-15785
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume133
Issue number39
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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Polyketides
Hydroxylation
Cyclization
Biosynthesis
Biosynthetic Pathways
Multigene Family
Genes
Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl
Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists
Acyl Carrier Protein
Anthraquinones
Aspergillus niger
Hydrolases
Enzymes
Mixed Function Oxygenases
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Cations
Fungi
Carbon
Neurokinin-1 Receptors

Cite this

@article{3a887aa3a032494ab570441f8112362b,
title = "Comparative characterization of fungal anthracenone and naphthacenedione biosynthetic pathways reveals an α-hydroxylation-dependent claisen-like cyclization catalyzed by a dimanganese thioesterase",
abstract = "The linear tetracyclic TAN-1612 (1) and BMS-192548 (2) were isolated from different filamentous fungal strains and have been examined as potential neuropeptide Y and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, respectively. Although the biosynthesis of fungal aromatic polyketides has attracted much interest in recent years, the biosynthetic mechanism for such naphthacenedione-containing products has not been established. Using a targeted genome mining approach, we first located the ada gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 in Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015. The connection between 1 and the ada pathway was verified through overexpression of the Zn 2Cys 6-type pathway-specific transcriptional regulator AdaR and subsequent gene expression analysis. The enzymes encoded in the ada gene cluster share high sequence similarities to the known apt pathway linked to the biosynthesis of anthraquinone asperthecin 3. Subsequent comparative investigation of these two highly homologous gene clusters by heterologous pathway reconstitution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a novel α-hydroxylation-dependent Claisen cyclization cascade, which involves a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that hydroxylates the α-carbon of an acyl carrier protein-bound polyketide and a bifunctional metallo-β-lactamase-type thioesterase (MβL-TE). The bifunctional MβL-TE catalyzes the fourth ring cyclization to afford the naphthacenedione scaffold upon α-hydroxylation, whereas it performs hydrolytic release of an anthracenone product in the absence of α-hydroxylation. Through in vitro biochemical characterizations and metal analyses, we verified that the apt MβL-TE is a dimanganese enzyme and requires both Mn 2+ cations for the observed activities. The MβL-TE is the first example of a thioesterase in polyketide biosynthesis that catalyzes the Claisen-like condensation without an α/β hydrolase fold and forms no covalent bond with the substrate. These mechanistic features should be general to the biosynthesis of tetracyclic naphthacenedione compounds in fungi. {\circledC} 2011 American Chemical Society.",
author = "Y. Li and Heng Chooi and Y. Sheng and J.S. Valentine and Y. Tang",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1021/ja206906d",
language = "English",
volume = "133",
pages = "15773--15785",
journal = "Journal of the Amercian Chemical Society",
issn = "0002-7863",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparative characterization of fungal anthracenone and naphthacenedione biosynthetic pathways reveals an α-hydroxylation-dependent claisen-like cyclization catalyzed by a dimanganese thioesterase

AU - Li, Y.

AU - Chooi, Heng

AU - Sheng, Y.

AU - Valentine, J.S.

AU - Tang, Y.

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - The linear tetracyclic TAN-1612 (1) and BMS-192548 (2) were isolated from different filamentous fungal strains and have been examined as potential neuropeptide Y and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, respectively. Although the biosynthesis of fungal aromatic polyketides has attracted much interest in recent years, the biosynthetic mechanism for such naphthacenedione-containing products has not been established. Using a targeted genome mining approach, we first located the ada gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 in Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015. The connection between 1 and the ada pathway was verified through overexpression of the Zn 2Cys 6-type pathway-specific transcriptional regulator AdaR and subsequent gene expression analysis. The enzymes encoded in the ada gene cluster share high sequence similarities to the known apt pathway linked to the biosynthesis of anthraquinone asperthecin 3. Subsequent comparative investigation of these two highly homologous gene clusters by heterologous pathway reconstitution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a novel α-hydroxylation-dependent Claisen cyclization cascade, which involves a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that hydroxylates the α-carbon of an acyl carrier protein-bound polyketide and a bifunctional metallo-β-lactamase-type thioesterase (MβL-TE). The bifunctional MβL-TE catalyzes the fourth ring cyclization to afford the naphthacenedione scaffold upon α-hydroxylation, whereas it performs hydrolytic release of an anthracenone product in the absence of α-hydroxylation. Through in vitro biochemical characterizations and metal analyses, we verified that the apt MβL-TE is a dimanganese enzyme and requires both Mn 2+ cations for the observed activities. The MβL-TE is the first example of a thioesterase in polyketide biosynthesis that catalyzes the Claisen-like condensation without an α/β hydrolase fold and forms no covalent bond with the substrate. These mechanistic features should be general to the biosynthesis of tetracyclic naphthacenedione compounds in fungi. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

AB - The linear tetracyclic TAN-1612 (1) and BMS-192548 (2) were isolated from different filamentous fungal strains and have been examined as potential neuropeptide Y and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, respectively. Although the biosynthesis of fungal aromatic polyketides has attracted much interest in recent years, the biosynthetic mechanism for such naphthacenedione-containing products has not been established. Using a targeted genome mining approach, we first located the ada gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 in Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015. The connection between 1 and the ada pathway was verified through overexpression of the Zn 2Cys 6-type pathway-specific transcriptional regulator AdaR and subsequent gene expression analysis. The enzymes encoded in the ada gene cluster share high sequence similarities to the known apt pathway linked to the biosynthesis of anthraquinone asperthecin 3. Subsequent comparative investigation of these two highly homologous gene clusters by heterologous pathway reconstitution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a novel α-hydroxylation-dependent Claisen cyclization cascade, which involves a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that hydroxylates the α-carbon of an acyl carrier protein-bound polyketide and a bifunctional metallo-β-lactamase-type thioesterase (MβL-TE). The bifunctional MβL-TE catalyzes the fourth ring cyclization to afford the naphthacenedione scaffold upon α-hydroxylation, whereas it performs hydrolytic release of an anthracenone product in the absence of α-hydroxylation. Through in vitro biochemical characterizations and metal analyses, we verified that the apt MβL-TE is a dimanganese enzyme and requires both Mn 2+ cations for the observed activities. The MβL-TE is the first example of a thioesterase in polyketide biosynthesis that catalyzes the Claisen-like condensation without an α/β hydrolase fold and forms no covalent bond with the substrate. These mechanistic features should be general to the biosynthesis of tetracyclic naphthacenedione compounds in fungi. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

U2 - 10.1021/ja206906d

DO - 10.1021/ja206906d

M3 - Article

VL - 133

SP - 15773

EP - 15785

JO - Journal of the Amercian Chemical Society

JF - Journal of the Amercian Chemical Society

SN - 0002-7863

IS - 39

ER -