Comparative Analysis of Arsenic Transport and Tolerance Mechanisms: Evolution from Prokaryote to Higher Plants

Jie Zhang, Jiayou Liu, Fubin Zheng, Min Yu, Sergey Shabala, Won Yong Song

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid for all living organisms and can cause serious harm to humans. Arsenic is also toxic to plants. To alleviate As toxicity, all living organisms (from prokaryotes to higher plants) have evolved comprehensive mechanisms to reduce cytosolic As concentration through the set of As transporters localized at the plasma and tonoplast membranes, which operate either in arsenite As(III) extrusion out of cells (via ArsB, ACR3, and aquaporins) or by sequestering arsenic into vacuoles (by ABC transporters). In addition, a special arsenate resistance mechanism found in some bacterial systems has evolved in an As hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata, which involves transforming arsenate As(V) to an As(V) phosphoglycerate derivative by a glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and transporting this complex by an efflux transporter. In the present review, we summarize the evolution of these arsenic resistance mechanisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes and discuss future approaches that could be utilized to better understand and improve As resistance mechanisms in plants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2741
JournalCells
Volume11
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sept 2022

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