Combined quadriceps medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction and osteochondral fixation offers good patient-reported outcomes and low rates of recurrent instability for osteochondral defects secondary to acute patella dislocation

John P Scanlon, Antony C Raymond, Randeep S Aujla, Satyen Gohil, Jay R Ebert, Li-On Lam, Shahbaz S Malik, Ashley Simpson, Jacobus H Otto, Declan Neeson, Peter D'Alessandro

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Abstract

PURPOSE: Chondral injuries secondary to traumatic patella dislocation are common, and a subgroup of these are significant defects with fragments amenable to fixation. There is a paucity of published evidence assessing patients managed with combined acute patellofemoral stabilisation and osteochondral fixation. The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes of patients with osteochondral injuries secondary to acute traumatic patella dislocation treated with combined early fragment fixation and MPFL reconstruction using a quadriceps tendon turndown technique which has distinct advantages for this cohort, including preventing chondral overloading and non-violation of the patella bone.

METHODS: Patients who underwent combined quadriceps tendon MPFL reconstruction and osteochondral fixation were included. Patient demographics, defect characteristics, complications and reoperations were evaluated. Patients were assessed with Lysholm, Kujala, KOOS-PF scores and satisfaction scale at follow up. Pre-operative MRI was assessed for presence of radiological risk factors for patella dislocation and post-operative MRI was used to assess cartilage quality with MOCART 2.0 score.

RESULTS: A total of 19 patients (63.2% female) were included. The mean age was 17.4 ± 4.8 years and patients were followed up at a mean 15.8 ± 5.1 months post-surgery. The mean defect size was 2.4 cm2 ± 1.3 cm2, with the most common defect location being the patella (13/19; 68.4%) followed by the lateral femoral condyle (5/19; 26.3%). At final follow up, the overall mean Lysholm, Kujala, and KOOS-PF scores were 84.9 ± 11.1, 89.7 ± 5.8 and 80.6 ± 13.6, respectively. Seventeen patients (89.5%) were satisfied with their outcome. The mean MOCART 2.0 score at final follow-up was 72.5. One patient required medial capsular plication with removal of a loose chondral body and microfracture and 3 knees required minor reoperations.

CONCLUSION: Combined acute osteochondral fragment fixation and MPFL reconstruction using a quadriceps tendon graft offers good radiological and patient-reported outcomes with high satisfaction and low rates of recurrent patella dislocation. To our knowledge, this is currently the largest series of its kind in the literature and the results of this study provide a rationale for a combined approach using a quadriceps tendon graft for this cohort.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4007-4015
Number of pages9
JournalKnee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA
Volume31
Issue number9
Early online date12 May 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

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