Phenoxy herbicides are integral to the control of Raphanus raphanistrum populations in Australian crop production systems, but the development of phenoxy resistant R. raphanistrum populations poses a major threat to the sustainability of these systems. In dose–response pot studies, phenoxy herbicide resistant R. raphanistrum populations, WARR12 and WARR20, suffered large biomass reductions following treatment with recommended or higher application rates of phenoxy herbicides. This indicates the presence of a weak resistance mechanism where treated plants, although surviving, are affected by these herbicides. Subsequently, the competitive ability of 2,4-D amine treated or untreated WARR12 and WARR20 populations with wheat was assessed using a target-neighbourhood experiment. The combination of wheat competition and 2,4-D amine application resulted in control of the resistant WARR12 population, but not the WARR20 population. Wheat crop competition alone resulted in large (>40%) biomass reductions of WARR12 and WARR20 populations. However, the application of the recommended rate of 2,4-D amine caused a large (>75%) reduction in WARR12 biomass, but had a reduced effect on WARR20 biomass. These studies possibly explain the largely successful control of R. raphanistrum populations being achieved with phenoxy herbicides in cropping systems across the Western Australia wheatbelt. However, the results also indicated that the strategy of combining crop competition with phenoxy herbicides for the control of this weed is likely to be an effective option in the short-term only.
Walsh, M., Maguire, N., & Powles, S. (2009). Combined effects of wheat competition and 2,4-D amine on phenoxy herbicide resistant Raphanus raphanistrum populations. Weed Research, 49(3), 316-325. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2008.00689.x