Combination of clinical symptoms and blood biomarkers can improve discrimination between bacterial or viral community-acquired pneumonia in children

Mejbah U. Bhuiyan, Christopher C. Blyth, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Caitlyn Granland, Camilla de Gier, Meredith L. Borland, Ruth B. Thornton, Lea-Ann S. Kirkham, Andrew Martin, Peter C. Richmond, David W. Smith, Adam Jaffe, Thomas L. Snelling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Differentiating bacterial from viral pneumonia is important for guiding targeted management and judicious use of antibiotics. We assessed if clinical characteristics and blood inflammatory biomarkers could be used to distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia.

Methods: Western Australian children (= 1 virus in nasopharyngeal swab without criteria for definite bacterial pneumonia), and other pneumonia cases (pneumonia in the absence of criteria for either definite bacterial or presumed viral pneumonia). The area-under-curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for varying biomarker levels were used to characterise their utility for discriminating definite bacterial from presumed viral pneumonia. For biomarkers with AUC > 0.8 (fair discriminator), Youden index was measured to determine the optimal cut-off threshold, and sensitivity, specificity, predictive values (positive and negative) were calculated. We investigated whether better discrimination could be achieved by combining biomarker values with the presence/absence of symptoms.

Results: From May 2015 to October 2017, 230 pneumonia cases were enrolled: 30 with definite bacterial pneumonia, 118 with presumed viral pneumonia and 82 other pneumonia cases. Differences in clinical signs and symptoms across the groups were noted; more definite bacterial pneumonia cases required intravenous fluid and oxygen supplementation than presumed viral or other pneumonia cases. CRP, WCC and ANC were substantially higher in definite bacterial cases. For a CRP threshold of 72 mg/L, the AUC of ROC was 0.82 for discriminating definite bacterial pneumonia from presumed viral pneumonia. Combining the CRP with either the presence of fever (>= 38 degrees C) or the absence of rhinorrhea improved the discrimination.

Conclusions: Combining elevated CRP with the presence or absence of clinical signs/ symptoms differentiates definite bacterial from presumed viral pneumonia better than CRP alone. Further studies are required to explore combination of biomarkers and symptoms for use as definitive diagnostic tool.

Original languageEnglish
Article number71
Number of pages9
JournalBMC Pulmonary Medicine
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2019

Cite this

Bhuiyan, Mejbah U. ; Blyth, Christopher C. ; West, Rachel ; Lang, Jurissa ; Rahman, Tasmina ; Granland, Caitlyn ; de Gier, Camilla ; Borland, Meredith L. ; Thornton, Ruth B. ; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S. ; Martin, Andrew ; Richmond, Peter C. ; Smith, David W. ; Jaffe, Adam ; Snelling, Thomas L. / Combination of clinical symptoms and blood biomarkers can improve discrimination between bacterial or viral community-acquired pneumonia in children. In: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 2019 ; Vol. 19, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Differentiating bacterial from viral pneumonia is important for guiding targeted management and judicious use of antibiotics. We assessed if clinical characteristics and blood inflammatory biomarkers could be used to distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia.Methods: Western Australian children (= 1 virus in nasopharyngeal swab without criteria for definite bacterial pneumonia), and other pneumonia cases (pneumonia in the absence of criteria for either definite bacterial or presumed viral pneumonia). The area-under-curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for varying biomarker levels were used to characterise their utility for discriminating definite bacterial from presumed viral pneumonia. For biomarkers with AUC > 0.8 (fair discriminator), Youden index was measured to determine the optimal cut-off threshold, and sensitivity, specificity, predictive values (positive and negative) were calculated. We investigated whether better discrimination could be achieved by combining biomarker values with the presence/absence of symptoms.Results: From May 2015 to October 2017, 230 pneumonia cases were enrolled: 30 with definite bacterial pneumonia, 118 with presumed viral pneumonia and 82 other pneumonia cases. Differences in clinical signs and symptoms across the groups were noted; more definite bacterial pneumonia cases required intravenous fluid and oxygen supplementation than presumed viral or other pneumonia cases. CRP, WCC and ANC were substantially higher in definite bacterial cases. For a CRP threshold of 72 mg/L, the AUC of ROC was 0.82 for discriminating definite bacterial pneumonia from presumed viral pneumonia. Combining the CRP with either the presence of fever (>= 38 degrees C) or the absence of rhinorrhea improved the discrimination.Conclusions: Combining elevated CRP with the presence or absence of clinical signs/ symptoms differentiates definite bacterial from presumed viral pneumonia better than CRP alone. Further studies are required to explore combination of biomarkers and symptoms for use as definitive diagnostic tool.",
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author = "Bhuiyan, {Mejbah U.} and Blyth, {Christopher C.} and Rachel West and Jurissa Lang and Tasmina Rahman and Caitlyn Granland and {de Gier}, Camilla and Borland, {Meredith L.} and Thornton, {Ruth B.} and Kirkham, {Lea-Ann S.} and Andrew Martin and Richmond, {Peter C.} and Smith, {David W.} and Adam Jaffe and Snelling, {Thomas L.}",
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Combination of clinical symptoms and blood biomarkers can improve discrimination between bacterial or viral community-acquired pneumonia in children. / Bhuiyan, Mejbah U.; Blyth, Christopher C.; West, Rachel; Lang, Jurissa; Rahman, Tasmina; Granland, Caitlyn; de Gier, Camilla; Borland, Meredith L.; Thornton, Ruth B.; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.; Martin, Andrew; Richmond, Peter C.; Smith, David W.; Jaffe, Adam; Snelling, Thomas L.

In: BMC Pulmonary Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 1, 71, 02.04.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Combination of clinical symptoms and blood biomarkers can improve discrimination between bacterial or viral community-acquired pneumonia in children

AU - Bhuiyan, Mejbah U.

AU - Blyth, Christopher C.

AU - West, Rachel

AU - Lang, Jurissa

AU - Rahman, Tasmina

AU - Granland, Caitlyn

AU - de Gier, Camilla

AU - Borland, Meredith L.

AU - Thornton, Ruth B.

AU - Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.

AU - Martin, Andrew

AU - Richmond, Peter C.

AU - Smith, David W.

AU - Jaffe, Adam

AU - Snelling, Thomas L.

PY - 2019/4/2

Y1 - 2019/4/2

N2 - Background: Differentiating bacterial from viral pneumonia is important for guiding targeted management and judicious use of antibiotics. We assessed if clinical characteristics and blood inflammatory biomarkers could be used to distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia.Methods: Western Australian children (= 1 virus in nasopharyngeal swab without criteria for definite bacterial pneumonia), and other pneumonia cases (pneumonia in the absence of criteria for either definite bacterial or presumed viral pneumonia). The area-under-curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for varying biomarker levels were used to characterise their utility for discriminating definite bacterial from presumed viral pneumonia. For biomarkers with AUC > 0.8 (fair discriminator), Youden index was measured to determine the optimal cut-off threshold, and sensitivity, specificity, predictive values (positive and negative) were calculated. We investigated whether better discrimination could be achieved by combining biomarker values with the presence/absence of symptoms.Results: From May 2015 to October 2017, 230 pneumonia cases were enrolled: 30 with definite bacterial pneumonia, 118 with presumed viral pneumonia and 82 other pneumonia cases. Differences in clinical signs and symptoms across the groups were noted; more definite bacterial pneumonia cases required intravenous fluid and oxygen supplementation than presumed viral or other pneumonia cases. CRP, WCC and ANC were substantially higher in definite bacterial cases. For a CRP threshold of 72 mg/L, the AUC of ROC was 0.82 for discriminating definite bacterial pneumonia from presumed viral pneumonia. Combining the CRP with either the presence of fever (>= 38 degrees C) or the absence of rhinorrhea improved the discrimination.Conclusions: Combining elevated CRP with the presence or absence of clinical signs/ symptoms differentiates definite bacterial from presumed viral pneumonia better than CRP alone. Further studies are required to explore combination of biomarkers and symptoms for use as definitive diagnostic tool.

AB - Background: Differentiating bacterial from viral pneumonia is important for guiding targeted management and judicious use of antibiotics. We assessed if clinical characteristics and blood inflammatory biomarkers could be used to distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia.Methods: Western Australian children (= 1 virus in nasopharyngeal swab without criteria for definite bacterial pneumonia), and other pneumonia cases (pneumonia in the absence of criteria for either definite bacterial or presumed viral pneumonia). The area-under-curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for varying biomarker levels were used to characterise their utility for discriminating definite bacterial from presumed viral pneumonia. For biomarkers with AUC > 0.8 (fair discriminator), Youden index was measured to determine the optimal cut-off threshold, and sensitivity, specificity, predictive values (positive and negative) were calculated. We investigated whether better discrimination could be achieved by combining biomarker values with the presence/absence of symptoms.Results: From May 2015 to October 2017, 230 pneumonia cases were enrolled: 30 with definite bacterial pneumonia, 118 with presumed viral pneumonia and 82 other pneumonia cases. Differences in clinical signs and symptoms across the groups were noted; more definite bacterial pneumonia cases required intravenous fluid and oxygen supplementation than presumed viral or other pneumonia cases. CRP, WCC and ANC were substantially higher in definite bacterial cases. For a CRP threshold of 72 mg/L, the AUC of ROC was 0.82 for discriminating definite bacterial pneumonia from presumed viral pneumonia. Combining the CRP with either the presence of fever (>= 38 degrees C) or the absence of rhinorrhea improved the discrimination.Conclusions: Combining elevated CRP with the presence or absence of clinical signs/ symptoms differentiates definite bacterial from presumed viral pneumonia better than CRP alone. Further studies are required to explore combination of biomarkers and symptoms for use as definitive diagnostic tool.

KW - Blood biomarker

KW - C-reactive protein

KW - Children

KW - Pneumonia

KW - Bacteria

KW - Virus

KW - C-REACTIVE PROTEIN

KW - INFLAMMATORY MARKERS

KW - SERUM PROCALCITONIN

KW - ETIOLOGY

KW - UTILITY

KW - DIFFERENTIATION

KW - DIAGNOSIS

KW - FEATURES

KW - SIGNS

U2 - 10.1186/s12890-019-0835-5

DO - 10.1186/s12890-019-0835-5

M3 - Article

VL - 19

JO - B M C Pulmonary Medicine

JF - B M C Pulmonary Medicine

SN - 1471-2466

IS - 1

M1 - 71

ER -