Cold water extraction on different codeine containing combination analgesics available prescription free in Australia

Cornelia Locher, Thomas Rippers

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    Abstract

    The abuse of codeine containing combination
    analgesics leads to significant non-opioid toxicities. Cold water
    extraction (CWE) reduces these side effects but can also provide
    access to highly restricted codeine phosphate. This study aims to
    assess the effectiveness of CWE for a range of drug combinations
    available on the Australian market as ’pharmacist-only’
    medicines. Six products containing codeine phosphate in
    combination with paracetamol, ibuprofen or aspirin as well as an
    excipient free mixture of codeine phosphate and ibuprofen
    lysinate were treated by CWE and the resulting drug content in
    the filtrate analysed by HPLC. The effect of an additional
    acidification step was also assessed for combinations containing
    aspirin and ibuprofen lysinate. It was found that CWE is able to
    remove almost all ibuprofen (up to 97%), but significant amounts
    of paracetamol (between 70% and 80% depending on the
    formulation) and aspirin (nearly 60%) remain in the filtrate. An
    additional acidification step can reduce the residual amount of
    dissolved aspirin to about 42%. The substitution of ibuprofen
    with ibuprofen lysinate allows the removal of the NSAID from
    the filtrate (via CWE followed by acidification) but lysinate as a
    water soluble impurity remains.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-4
    JournalJournal of Advances in Medical Research
    Volume1
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2016

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