Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

Q. B. Nguyen, Rebecca Sinclair-Adamson, Matthew Harbidge, Lawrence Cram, Rebecca Murray

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference presentation/ephemera


This study explores an advanced method of manufacturing stainless steel components using cold spray additive manufacturing (CSAM). Three heat treatment groups were allocated to observe microstructure evolution and mechanical performance compared to as-printed samples.
316 stainless steel powder (Höganäs, batch: B2353319, D50=25 µm, irregular shape) was used to produce bulk and tensile coupons using the LightSPEE3D machine (SPEE3D, Aus) with dry compressed air as the carrier gas with a preheating temperature of 500°C, 30 bar pressure, powder feed rate of 20g/min, and layer thickness of 0.86mm. Heat treatment occurred at 1000, 1100, and 1200°C for a duration of 4 hours with furnace cool under an argon-protective environment.
Initial microscopy results reveal with increasing sintering temperature: density increased, pore size decreased, pore shape transitioned from irregular to round, presence of twinning became more obvious, fracture mode becomes more ductile. SEM images indicate possible presence of oxides and carbides along the grain boundaries near original particle boundaries. The grain size remained similar with increasing sintering temperature possibly due to a grain pinning effect of oxides and carbides. Fracture surfaces show a mixed mode of ductile and brittle features with microcracks initiated from the pore sites and grain boundaries. Initial results (n=3) from CSAM SS316 components heat treated at 1200°C were obtained with ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 412±22 MPa and 3.9±1.6% elongation. Further qualitative and quantitative analysis will be presented with initial results showing that 316 stainless steel components can be produced via CSAM with a UTS up to 440 MPa.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2020
Externally publishedYes
EventMaterials Innovations in Surface Engineering - Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia
Duration: 10 Feb 201912 Feb 2019


ConferenceMaterials Innovations in Surface Engineering
Abbreviated titleMISE 2020


Dive into the research topics of 'Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this