Membrane separation and sulfate radicals-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) can be combined as an efficient technique for the elimination of organic pollutants. The immobilization of metal oxide catalysts on ceramic membranes can enrich the membrane separation technology with catalytic oxidation avoiding recovering suspended catalysts. Herein, nanostructured Co3O4 ceramic catalytic membranes with different Co loadings were fabricated via a simple ball-milling and calcination process. Uniform distribution of Co3O4 nanoparticles in the membrane provided sufficient active sites for catalytic oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA). Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the reactive radicals and showed that both SO4•− and •OH were present in the catalytic process while SO4•− plays the dominant role. The anti-fouling performance of the composite Co@Al2O3 membranes was also evaluated, showing that a great flux recovery was achieved with the addition of PMS for the fouling caused by humic acid (HA).