Co-Cropping Indian Mustard and Silage Maize for Phytoremediation of a Cadmium-Contaminated Acid Paddy Soil Amended with Peat

Sifan Wang, Yong Liu, Khalil Kariman, Jialin Li, Huihua Zhang, Fangbai Li, Yinglong Chen, Chongjian Ma, Chuanping Liu, Yuzhen Yuan, Zhiqiang Zhu, Zed Rengel

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8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Co-cropping is an eco-friendly strategy to improve the phytoremediation capacity of plants growing in soils contaminated with heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd). This study was conducted to investigate the effects of co-cropping Indian mustard (Brassicajuncea) and silage maize (Zeamays) and applying peat on the phytoremediation of a Cd-contaminated acid paddy soil via characterizing plant growth and Cd uptake in pot experiments. There were six planting patterns (Control: no plants; MI-2 and MI-4: mono-cropping of Indian mustard at low and high densities, respectively; MS: mono-cropping of silage maize; CIS-2 and CIS-4: co-cropping of Indian mustard at low and high densities with silage maize, respectively) and two application rates of peat (NP: 0; WP: 30 g kg−1). When Indian mustard and silage maize were co-cropped, the shoot biomass of Indian mustard plants per pot was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that obtained in the mono-cropping systems, with a substantial reduction (55–72%) in the same plant density group. The shoot biomass of silage maize plants in the mono-cropping systems did not differ significantly from that in the co-cropping systems regardless of the density of Indian mustard. The growth-promoting effect of the peat application was more pronounced in Indian mustard than silage maize. Under the low density of Indian mustard, the co-cropping systems significantly (p < 0.05) decreased Cd uptake by silage maize. Additionally, soil amendment with peat significantly (p < 0.05) increased shoot Cd removal rate and Cd translocation factor value in the co-cropping systems. Taken together, the results demonstrated that silage maize should be co-cropped with Indian mustard at an appropriate density in Cd-polluted soils to achieve simultaneous remediation of Cd-contaminated soils (via Indian mustard) and production of crops (here, silage maize). Peat application was shown to promote the removal of Cd from soil and translocation of Cd into shoots and could contribute to enhanced phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated acid paddy soil.
Original languageEnglish
Article number91
Number of pages17
JournalToxics
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

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