Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease of public health concern affecting tropical and subtrop-ical countries, including Indonesia. Although studies on dengue epidemiology have been undertaken in Indonesia, data are lacking in many areas of the country. The aim of this study was to determine dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) molecular epidemiology in western regions of the Indonesian archipelago. A one-year prospective study was conducted in Aceh and Jambi in 2015 and 2016, respectively, where patients with dengue-like illness were enrolled. Of 205 patients recruited, 29 and 27 were confirmed with dengue in Aceh and Jambi, respectively, and three from Jambi were confirmed with chikungunya. DENV-1 was the predominant serotype identified in Aceh while DENV-2 was predominant in Jambi. All DENV-1 and DENV-2 from both regions were classified as Genotype I and Cosmopolitan genotype, respectively, and all DENV-3 viruses from Jambi were Genotype I. Some viruses, in particular DENV-1, displayed a distinct lineage distribution, where two DENV-1 lineages from Aceh were more closely related to viruses from China instead of Jambi highlighting the role of travel and flight patterns on DENV transmission in the region. DENV-2 from both Aceh and Jambi and DENV-3 from Jambi were all closely related to Indonesian local strains. All three CHIKV belonged to Asian genotype and clustered closely with Indonesian CHIKV strains including those previously circulating in Jambi in 2015, confirming continuous and sustainable transmission of CHIKV in the region. The study results emphasize the importance of continuous epidemiological surveillance of arboviruses in Indonesia and simultaneous testing for CHIKV among dengue-suspected patients.