Clinical Trial Protocol for PRIMARY2: A Multicentre, Phase 3, Randomised Controlled Trial Investigating the Additive Diagnostic Value of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Men with Negative or Equivocal Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Diagnosis of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer

James P. Buteau, Daniel Moon, Michael T. Fahey, Matthew J. Roberts, James Thompson, Declan G. Murphy, Nathan Papa, Catherine Mitchell, Richard De Abreu Lourenco, Haryana M. Dhillon, Veeru Kasivisvanathan, Roslyn J. Francis, Phillip Stricker, Shihka Agrawal, Jonathan O'Brien, Aoife McVey, Gaurav Sharma, Sidney Levy, Narjess Ayati, Andrew NguyenSu Faye Lee, David A. Pattison, Dinesh Sivaratnam, Mark Frydenberg, Yang Du, Jehan Titus, Sze Ting Lee, Joseph Ischia, Greg Jack, Michael S. Hofman, Louise Emmett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has an established role for the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer (sPCa). The PRIMARY trial demonstrated that [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was associated with a significant improvement in sensitivity and negative predictive value for sPCa detection. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that addition of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) radioligand PET/CT will enable some men to avoid transperineal prostate biopsy without missing sPCa, and will facilitate biopsy targeting of PSMA-avid sites. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This multicentre, two-arm, phase 3, randomised controlled trial will recruit 660 participants scheduled to undergo biopsy. Eligible participants will have clinical suspicion of sPCa with a Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score of 2 and red flags, or a PI-RADS score of 3 on mpMRI (PI-RADS v2). Participants will be randomised at a 1:1 ratio in permuted blocks stratified by centre. The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT05154162. INTERVENTION: In the experimental arm, participants will undergo pelvic PSMA PET/CT. Local and central reviewers will interpret scans independently using the PRIMARY score. Participants with a positive result will undergo targeted transperineal prostate biopsies, whereas those with a negative result will undergo prostate-specific antigen monitoring alone. In the control arm, all participants undergo template transperineal prostate biopsies. Participants will be followed for subsequent clinical care for up to 2 yr after randomisation. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: sPCa is defined as Gleason score 3 + 4 (≥10%) = 7 disease (grade group 2) or higher on transperineal prostate biopsy. Avoidance of transperineal prostate biopsy will be measured at 6 mo from randomisation. The primary endpoints will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. CONCLUSIONS: Patient enrolment began in March 2022, with recruitment expected to take 36 mo. PATIENT SUMMARY: For patients with suspected prostate cancer who have nonsuspicious or unclear MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan findings, a different type of scan (called PSMA PET/CT; prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography) may identify men who could avoid an invasive prostate biopsy. This type of scan could also help urologists in better targeting of samples from suspicious lesions during prostate biopsies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)544-552
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Urology Oncology
Volume7
Issue number3
Early online date15 May 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024

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