CONTEXT: Pituitary blastoma is a rare, dysontogenetic hypophyseal tumor of infancy first described in 2008, strongly suggestive of DICER1 syndrome. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to describe genetic alterations, clinical courses, outcomes, and complications in all known pituitary blastoma cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: A multi-institutional case series is presented from tertiary pediatric oncology centers. PATIENTS: Patients included children with pituitary blastoma. INTERVENTIONS: Genetic testing, surgery, oncologic therapy, endocrine support are reported. OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcome measures included survival, long-term morbidities, and germline and tumor DICER1 genotypes. RESULTS: Seventeen pituitary blastoma cases were studied (10 girls and 7 boys); median age at diagnosis was 11 months (range, 2-24 months). Cushing syndrome was the most frequent presentation (n = 10). Cushingoid stigmata were absent in 7 children (2 with increased adrenocorticotropin [ACTH]; 5 with normal/unmeasured ACTH). Ophthalmoplegia and increased intracranial pressure were also observed. Surgical procedures included gross/near-total resection (n = 7), subtotal resection (n = 9), and biopsy (n = 1). Six children received adjuvant therapy. At a median follow-up of 6.7 years, 9 patients were alive; 8 patients died of the following causes: early medical/surgical complications (n = 3), sepsis (n = 1), catheter-related complication (n = 1), aneurysmal bleeding (n = 1), second brain tumor (n = 1), and progression (n = 1). Surgery was the only intervention for 5 of 9 survivors. Extent of resection, but neither Ki67 labeling index nor adjuvant therapy, was significantly associated with survival. Chronic complications included neuroendocrine (n = 8), visual (n = 4), and neurodevelopmental (n = 3) deficits. Sixteen pituitary blastomas were attributed to DICER1 abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Pituitary blastoma is a locally destructive tumor associated with high mortality. Surgical resection alone provides long-term disease control for some patients. Quality survival is possible with long-term neuroendocrine management.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism|
|Publication status||Published - 23 Jan 2021|