Clinical Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive Behavior Therapy: An Updated Meta-Analysis

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31 Citations (Scopus)


In 1995, Kirsch and colleagues published an influential meta-analysis (k = 20, N = 577) which found that CBT enhanced with hypnosis (CBTH) was superior to CBT alone by at least d = .53. However, a lack of full replication and the emergence of new empirical studies prompted this updated analysis. A total of 48 post- (N = 1,928) and 25 follow-up treatments (N = 1,165) were meta-analyzed. CBTH achieved small to medium but statistically significant advantages over CBT at posttreatment (dIGPP/d = .25 to .41), and specifically in the management of depressed mood and pain. At follow-up, there was a medium sized advantage for CBTH (dIGPP/d = .54 to .59), and specifically for the treatment of obesity. These results further support the adjunctive use of hypnosis as an enhancer of CBT's efficaciousness and endurance as a treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-202
Number of pages34
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Issue number2
Early online date1 Mar 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021


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