Background. Various studies show that cannabis use alters attention and cognitive functioning in healthy humans and may contribute to development of schizophrenia or worsening of pre-existing psychosis. However, the impact of cannabis use on brain function in humans is not well understood. Schizophrenia is associated with a deficit in prepulse inhibition (PPI), the normal inhibition of the startle reflex by a non-startling stimulus (prepulse), presented before the startle stimulus at short time intervals (lead-time intervals). Such PPI deficit is thought to reflect a sensorimotor gating dysfunction in schizophrenia. PPI is also modulated by attention and PPI reduction in schizophrenia is observed when patients are asked to attend to, not ignore, the stimuli producing PPI. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between self-reported chronic cannabis use and attentional modulation of PPI in healthy controls and in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, the association between cannabis use and other startle reflex modulators, including prepulse facilitation (PPF) of the startle reflex magnitude at long lead-time intervals, prepulse facilitation of the startle reflex onset latency and habituation of the startle reflex magnitude, were examined. Method. Auditory-evoked electromyographic signals were recorded from orbicularis oculi muscles in chronic cannabis users (29 healthy controls and 5 schizophrenia patients) and non-users (22 controls and 14 patients). The data for 36 participants (12 non-user controls, 16 healthy cannabis users, and eight non-user patients) were used in the final analyses and the patient data were used as a pilot study, because relatively few participants met the rigorous exclusionary criteria. Participants were instructed to attend to or to ignore either the startle stimuli alone (70 100 dB) or prepulse (70 dB) and startle stimuli (100 dB) separated by short lead-time intervals (20 200 ms) and long lead-time intervals (1600 ms). In order to ignore the auditory stimuli the participants played a visually guided hand-held computer game. A pilot study showed that the response component of playing the game had no effects on attentional modulation of the startle reflex magnitude and onset latency. Results. Relative to controls, cannabis use in healthy humans was associated with a reduction in PPI similar to that observed in schizophrenia while attending to stimuli, and with an attention-dependent dysfunction in the startle reflex magnitude habituation. While ignoring the stimuli there were no statistical differences in PPI between cannabis users and controls, although PPI in cannabis users tended to differ from that of the patients. The reduction in PPI in cannabis users was correlated with the increased duration of cannabis use, in years, but not with the concentration of cannabinoid metabolites in urine or with the recency of cannabis use in the preceding 24 hours. Furthermore, cannabis use was not associated with any differences in PPF, onset latency facilitation, and startle reflex magnitude in the absence of prepulses. The accuracy of self-reports of substance use was also investigated in this study and was found to be excellent. In addition, the study examined the validity of the substance use module of the diagnostic interview, CIDI-Auto 2.1, which was found to be acceptable for cannabis misuse diagnoses (abuse and/or dependence). Finally, cannabis dependence was found to be associated with more diagnoses of mental illness other than schizophrenia (mainly depression). Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest that chronic cannabis use is associated with schizophrenia-like deficit in PPI in otherwise healthy humans. This PPI reduction is associated with attentional impairment rather than a global sensorimotor gating deficit in healthy cannabis users.
|Qualification||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Publication status||Unpublished - 2004|