The somatic chromosome numbers of the eleven Australian seagrass species belonging to five genera in the Family Cymodoceaceae were determined. The chromosome numbers in Amphibolis and Thalassodendron are reported for the first time. Cymodocea and Halodule species have the following chromosome numbers: Cymodocea angustata Ostenf., 2n = 14, 28; C. rotundata Ehrenb. & Hempr. ex Asch., 2n = 14; C. serrulata (R. Br.) Asch. & Magnus, 2n = 14, 28; Halodule pinifolia (Miki) den Hartog, 2n = 32; H. uninervis (Forsk.) Asch., 2n = 32; H. tridentata (Steinh.) Endl. ex Unger, 2n = 14. Halodule has the highest chromosome numbers among the seagrasses and they are the largest in sizes with a distinct bimodal type in the family. Syringodium isoetifolium (Asch.) Dandy has 2n = 20. Both endemic Amphibolis antarctica (Labill.) Sonder ex Asch. and A. griffithii (J. Black) den Hartog have 2n = ca. 36 and have the smallest chromosomes in the family appearing as small dots. Thalassodendron pachyrhizum den Hartog has 2n = 28. Chromosome numbers appear to be identical or closely related among different species in the same genus but they vary in the five genera in the Cymodoceaceae suggesting that these five genera may have evolved independently in the past. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.