Children with chronic cough: When is watchful waiting appropriate? Development of likelihood ratios for assessing children with chronic cough

A. Chang, P.P.V. Van Asperen, N.J. Głasgow, C.F. Robertson, C.M. Mellis, I.B.R. Masters, Louis Landau, L. Teoh, I. Tjhung, H.L. Petsky, P.S. Morris

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    33 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    © 2015 American College of Chest Physicians. BACKGROUND: Chronic cough is associated with poor quality of life and may signify a serious underlying disease. Differentiating nonspecific cough (when watchful waiting can be safely undertaken) from specific cough (treatment and further investigations are beneficial) would be clinically useful. In 326 children, we aimed to (1) determine how well cough pointers (used in guidelines) differentiate specific from nonspecific cough and (2) describe the clinical profile of children whose cough resolved without medications (spontaneous resolution). METHODS: A dataset from a multicenter study involving children newly referred for chronic cough (median duration, 3-4 months) was used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios (LRs) of cough pointers (symptoms, signs, and simple investigations [chest radiography, spirometry]) recommended in guidelines. RESULTS: The pretest probability of specific cough was 88%. The absence of false-positive results meant that most pointers had strongly positive LRs. The most sensitive pointer (wet cough) had a positive LR of 26.2 (95% CI, 3.8-181.5). Although the absence of other individual pointers did not change the pretest probability much (negative LR close to 1), the absence of all pointers had a strongly negative LR of 0 (95% CI, 0-0.03). Children in the resolved spontaneously group were significantly more likely to be older, to be non-Indigenous, and to have a dry cough and a normal chest radiograph. CONCLUSIONS: Children with chronic dry cough without any cough pointers can be safely managed using the watchful waiting approach. The high pretest probability and high positive LRs of cough pointers support the use of individual cough pointers to identify high risk of specific cough in pediatric chronic cough guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRY: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry; No.: 12607000526471; URL: www.anzctr.org.au.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)745-753
    JournalChest
    Volume147
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2015

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