Phytophthora clandestina is a causal agent of root rot disease of subterranean clover in Western Australia (W.A). As a significant number of isolates of P. clandestina from W.A. could not previously be designated using existing differentials, a comprehensive set of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) cultivars was used as differentials to delineate a broader range of races of the pathogen. One hundred and one isolates of the pathogen collected from W.A. were screened on nine subterranean clover cultivars, of which seven were found to be useful as host differentials. A total of 10 races (in contrast to the five recognized previously) were defined and differentiated using octal nomenclature, presenting a clearer picture of the racial distribution of P. clandestina among W.A. isolates. Differences were found in the race populations between Australian states and are therefore important to the selection/breeding of cultivars for specific regions of Australia to counter the predominant race populations and for enforcing quarantine measures in relation to seed movements within and outside Australia. The octal nomenclature used provides a sound basis for follow-up studies and future race designations. Races 173 and 177 in this study were widely distributed and were the most common races in W.A., and together constitute 80% of the isolates characterized. While six of the seven host differentials were resistant to isolates belonging to race 001 and all were resistant to 000, it is of concern that only one differential was resistant to 157 and 173 and that none of the host differentials were resistant to 177. Our approach to P. clandestina race delineation is clearly conservative and is different from previous studies. The octal nomenclature we applied in this study is not only scientifically sound but also will facilitate rapid recognition and characterization of the races.