Characterization and Modeling of Photostriction in Silicon Cantilevers Fabricated on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrates

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    Abstract

    Photostriction-based all-optical actuation of silicon microcantilevers has been investigated through experimental characterization of structures fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates, and through numerical modeling and analysis of their semiconductor device and micromechanical characteristics. Since the pressure coefficient of the bandgap is negative in Si, photostriction-induced photoactuation in Si-based cantilevers was evident as upward mechanical defections (away from the substrate) in response to pulsed laser illumination on the cantilevers' top surface, which is in contrast to the downward deflections typical of photothermal effects. For the numerical modeling of photostriction induced effects, carrier lifetime and excess-carrier concentrations were determined from transient photoconductance measurements. The experimentally determined parameters were then employed to simulate carrier-density profiles across the modeled structure. The modeled cantilever deflections were found to be in excellent agreement with experimentally determined deflections. It is also shown that 100-μm-long Si cantilevers were deflected by up to 10 nm, and generated a force of 0.14 nN, when optically actuated by a 405-nm laser power density of 400 W/cm2.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)182 - 191
    JournalIEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
    Volume24
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2015

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    Carrier concentration
    Silicon
    Carrier lifetime
    Substrates
    Semiconductor devices
    Pulsed lasers
    Energy gap
    Lighting
    Lasers

    Cite this

    @article{53c4e1d8e14e45f68ae8629454b2a005,
    title = "Characterization and Modeling of Photostriction in Silicon Cantilevers Fabricated on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrates",
    abstract = "Photostriction-based all-optical actuation of silicon microcantilevers has been investigated through experimental characterization of structures fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates, and through numerical modeling and analysis of their semiconductor device and micromechanical characteristics. Since the pressure coefficient of the bandgap is negative in Si, photostriction-induced photoactuation in Si-based cantilevers was evident as upward mechanical defections (away from the substrate) in response to pulsed laser illumination on the cantilevers' top surface, which is in contrast to the downward deflections typical of photothermal effects. For the numerical modeling of photostriction induced effects, carrier lifetime and excess-carrier concentrations were determined from transient photoconductance measurements. The experimentally determined parameters were then employed to simulate carrier-density profiles across the modeled structure. The modeled cantilever deflections were found to be in excellent agreement with experimentally determined deflections. It is also shown that 100-μm-long Si cantilevers were deflected by up to 10 nm, and generated a force of 0.14 nN, when optically actuated by a 405-nm laser power density of 400 W/cm2.",
    author = "Venkatesh Chenniappan and {Umana Membreno}, Gilberto and Dilusha Silva and Hemendra Kala and Adrian Keating and Mariusz Martyniuk and John Dell and Lorenzo Faraone",
    year = "2015",
    month = "2",
    doi = "10.1109/JMEMS.2014.2324561",
    language = "English",
    volume = "24",
    pages = "182 -- 191",
    journal = "Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems",
    issn = "1057-7157",
    publisher = "IEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers",
    number = "1",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Characterization and Modeling of Photostriction in Silicon Cantilevers Fabricated on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrates

    AU - Chenniappan, Venkatesh

    AU - Umana Membreno, Gilberto

    AU - Silva, Dilusha

    AU - Kala, Hemendra

    AU - Keating, Adrian

    AU - Martyniuk, Mariusz

    AU - Dell, John

    AU - Faraone, Lorenzo

    PY - 2015/2

    Y1 - 2015/2

    N2 - Photostriction-based all-optical actuation of silicon microcantilevers has been investigated through experimental characterization of structures fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates, and through numerical modeling and analysis of their semiconductor device and micromechanical characteristics. Since the pressure coefficient of the bandgap is negative in Si, photostriction-induced photoactuation in Si-based cantilevers was evident as upward mechanical defections (away from the substrate) in response to pulsed laser illumination on the cantilevers' top surface, which is in contrast to the downward deflections typical of photothermal effects. For the numerical modeling of photostriction induced effects, carrier lifetime and excess-carrier concentrations were determined from transient photoconductance measurements. The experimentally determined parameters were then employed to simulate carrier-density profiles across the modeled structure. The modeled cantilever deflections were found to be in excellent agreement with experimentally determined deflections. It is also shown that 100-μm-long Si cantilevers were deflected by up to 10 nm, and generated a force of 0.14 nN, when optically actuated by a 405-nm laser power density of 400 W/cm2.

    AB - Photostriction-based all-optical actuation of silicon microcantilevers has been investigated through experimental characterization of structures fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates, and through numerical modeling and analysis of their semiconductor device and micromechanical characteristics. Since the pressure coefficient of the bandgap is negative in Si, photostriction-induced photoactuation in Si-based cantilevers was evident as upward mechanical defections (away from the substrate) in response to pulsed laser illumination on the cantilevers' top surface, which is in contrast to the downward deflections typical of photothermal effects. For the numerical modeling of photostriction induced effects, carrier lifetime and excess-carrier concentrations were determined from transient photoconductance measurements. The experimentally determined parameters were then employed to simulate carrier-density profiles across the modeled structure. The modeled cantilever deflections were found to be in excellent agreement with experimentally determined deflections. It is also shown that 100-μm-long Si cantilevers were deflected by up to 10 nm, and generated a force of 0.14 nN, when optically actuated by a 405-nm laser power density of 400 W/cm2.

    U2 - 10.1109/JMEMS.2014.2324561

    DO - 10.1109/JMEMS.2014.2324561

    M3 - Article

    VL - 24

    SP - 182

    EP - 191

    JO - Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems

    JF - Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems

    SN - 1057-7157

    IS - 1

    ER -