Challenges and opportunities in bioremediation of micro-nano plastics: A review

Yuwen Zhou, Manish Kumar, Surendra Sarsaiya, Ranjna Sirohi, Sanjeev Kumar Awasthi, Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod, Ashok Pandey, Nanthi S. Bolan, Zengqiang Zhang, Lal Singh, Sunil Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

76 Citations (Scopus)


Rising level of micro-nano plastics (MNPs) in the natural ecosystem adversely impact the health of the environment and living organisms globally. MNPs enter in to the agro-ecosystem, flora and fauna, and human body via trophic transfer, ingestion and inhalation, resulting impediment in blood vessel, infertility, and abnormal behaviors. Therefore, it becomes indispensable to apply a novel approach to remediate MNPs from natural environment. Amongst the several prevailing technologies of MNPs remediation, microbial remediation is considered as greener technology. Microbial degradation of plastics is typically influenced by several biotic as well as abiotic factors, such as enzymatic mechanisms, substrates and co-substrates concentration, temperature, pH, oxidative stress, etc. Therefore, it is pivotal to recognize the key pathways adopted by microbes to utilize plastic fragments as a sole carbon source for the growth and development. In this context, this review critically discussed the role of various microbes and their enzymatic mechanisms involved in biodegradation of MNPs in wastewater (WW) stream, municipal sludge, municipal solid waste (MSW), and composting starting with biological and toxicological impacts of MNPs. Moreover, this review comprehensively discussed the deployment of various MNPs remediation technologies, such as enzymatic, advanced molecular, and bio-membrane technologies in fostering the bioremediation of MNPs from various environmental compartments along with their pros and cons and prospects for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number149823
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022


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