There is growing literature on the positive therapeutic potentials of curcumin. Curcumin or diferuloylmethane is a polyphenol obtained from the plant Curcuma longa. Curcumin is widely used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for various conditions. The role of curcumin in thyroid gland disorders has been demonstrated by its effects on various biological pathways, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-proliferative, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell cycle and metastasis. In this paper, we have reviewed the recent literature on curcumin applications for thyroid dysfunction, including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and discussed the molecular mechanisms of these effects. This review aims to summarize the wealth of research related to the therapeutic effect of curcumin on the thyroid gland.