Cardiovascular defense challenges at the basic, clinical, and population levels

Jason C. Kovacic, Jose M. Castellano, Valentin Fuster

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Particularly in low and middle income countries, rapid urbanization and secondary factors, such as increasing obesity, poor diet, and lack of exercise, have combined to propel CVD into this position. Given the enormous scope of this problem and the complex cultural, societal, and political issues that are involved, an equally sophisticated and multipronged approach is required to combat CVD at the global level. In this review, we outline the basic, clinical, and population level challenges that we face in defending ourselves against this disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2012
Externally publishedYes


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