The clinical status of HIV infection has changed dramatically with the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy. Patients with HIV are now living long enough to be susceptible to chronic illnesses, such as coronary disease and nonischemic cardiomyopathy, which can be consequences of the combined antiretroviral therapy treatment itself. Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients. Increasingly, such patients might be candidates for the full range of cardiac surgical interventions, including coronary bypass, valve surgery, and heart transplantation. There has been a shift from offering palliative procedures such as pericardial window and balloon valvuloplasty, to more conventional and durable surgical therapies in HIV-positive patients. We herein provide an overview of the contemporary outcomes of cardiac surgery in this complex and unique patient population. We review some of the ethical issues around the selection and surgical care of HIV-positive patients. We also discuss strategies to best protect the surgical treatment team from the risks of HIV transmission. Finally, we highlight the need for involvement of dedicated infectious disease professionals in a multidisciplinary heart team approach, aiming at the comprehensive care of these unique and complex patients.