This review summarizes the adsorptive removal of Fluoroquinolones (FQ) from water and wastewater. The influence of different physicochemical parameters on the adsorptive removal of FQ-based compounds is detailed. Further, the mechanisms involved in the adsorption of FQ-based antibiotics on various adsorbents are succinctly described. As the first of its kind, this paper emphasizes the performance of each adsorbent for FQ-type antibiotic removal based on partition coefficients of the adsorbents that is a more sensitive parameter than adsorption capacity for comparing the performances of adsorbents under various adsorbate concentrations and heterogeneous environmental conditions. It was found that π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions, electrostatic interactions, and pore-filling were the most prominent mechanisms for FQ adsorption by carbon and clay-based adsorbents. Among all the categories of adsorbents reviewed, graphene showed the highest performance for the removal of FQ antibiotics from water and wastewater. Based on the current state of knowledge, this review fills the gap through methodolically understanding the mechanism for further improvement of FQ antibiotics adsorption performance from water and wastewater.