Human milk (HM) carbohydrates may affect infant appetite regulation, breastfeeding patterns, and body composition (BC). We investigated relationships between concentrations/calculated daily intakes (CDI) of HM carbohydrates in first year postpartum and maternal/term infant BC, as well as breastfeeding parameters. BC of dyads (n = 20) was determined at 2, 5, 9, and/or 12 months postpartum using ultrasound skinfolds (infants) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (infants/mothers). Breastfeeding frequency, 24-h milk intake and total carbohydrates (TCH) and lactose were measured to calculate HM oligosaccharides (HMO) concentration and CDI of carbohydrates. Statistical analysis used linear regression/mixed effects models; results were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Higher TCH concentrations were associated with greater infant length, weight, fat-free mass (FFM), and FFM index (FFMI), and decreased fat mass (FM), FM index (FMI), %FM and FM/FFM ratio. Higher HMO concentrations were associated with greater infant FFM and FFMI, and decreased FMI, %FM, and FM/FFM ratio. Higher TCH CDI were associated with greater FM, FMI, %FM, and FM/FFM ratio, and decreased infant FFMI. Higher lactose CDI were associated with greater FM, FMI, %FM, and FM/FFM, ratio and decreased FFMI. Concentrations and intakes of HM carbohydrates differentially influence development of infant BC in the first 12 months postpartum, and may potentially influence risk of later obesity via modulation of BC.