Molecular capsules, cages and other three-dimensional hosts arising from the reversible assembly of complementary monomers are able to enclose space and encapsulate guest molecules. This article highlights work done in this area exemplifying the growing variety of non-covalent stabilising interactions being employed in host formation. These interactions include hydrogen bonding, ionic interactions, metal ion coordination as well as combinations thereof. Due to the protective environment offered by these hosts from the bulk phase solution, altered properties are often observed for encapsulated guests which is paving the way towards realising practical applications of such host systems.
Johnston, MR., & Latter, M. (2005). Capsules, Cages and Three-Dimensional Hosts: Self-Assembly of Complementary Monomers. Supramolecular Chemistry, 17(8), 595-607. https://doi.org/10.1080/10610270500128400