© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We present a first study of a long-term phantom for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and X-ray imaging of biological tissues with magnetic nanocomposites (MNC) suitable for 3-dimensional and quantitative imaging of tissues after, e.g. magnetically assisted cancer treatments. We performed a cross-calibration of X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) and MRI with a joint calibration standard for both imaging techniques. For this, we have designed a phantom for MRI and X-ray computed tomography which represents biological tissue enriched with MNC. The developed phantoms consist of an elastomer with different concentrations of multi-core MNC. The matrix material is a synthetic thermoplastic gel, PermaGel (PG). The developed phantoms have been analyzed with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Relaxometry (Bruker minispec mq 60) at 1.4 T to obtain R2 transverse relaxation rates, with SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) magnetometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) to verify the magnetite concentration, and with XµCT and 9.4 T MRI to visualize the phantoms 3-dimensionally and also to obtain T2 relaxation times. A specification of a sensitivity range is determined for standard imaging techniques X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and MRI as well as with NMR. These novel phantoms show a long-term stability over several months up to years. It was possible to suspend a particular MNC within the PG reaching a concentration range from 0 mg/ml to 6.914 mg/ml. The R2 relaxation rates from 1.4 T NMR-relaxometry show a clear connection (R2=0.994) with MNC concentrations between 0 mg/ml and 4.5 mg/ml. The MRI experiments have shown a linear correlation of R2 relaxation and MNC concentrations as well but in a range between MNC concentrations of 0 mg/ml and 1.435 mg/ml. It could be shown that XµCT displays best moderate and high MNC concentrations. The sensitivity range for this particular XµCT apparatus yields from 0.569 mg/ml to 6.914 mg/ml. The cross-cali
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