Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a complex and heterogeneous disease influenced by multiple factors and related to peak bone mass achieved in early adult life, followed by a subsequent continuous bone loss. Genetic variance and polymorphisms have been shown to be of clinical significance for osteoporotic fragility fractures. Previous studies have related variations in the calcium sensor receptor (CASR) gene to circulating Ca levels and bone mass in young women and adolescent girls. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the A986S polymorphism of the CASR gene on calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism in elderly women. We studied the distribution of the A986S polymorphism in a large cohort of 1252 ambulatory Australian women in relation to biochemical markers of bone metabolism, bone mass evaluated by quantitative ultrasound measurements (QUS) and DXA of the hip, prevalent and 36-month incident fracture data. No effect of the polymorphism was found on circulating calcium level, renal Ca excretion, or biochemical markers of bone turnover. Moreover, A986S was not associated with bone mass or prevalent or incident fractures. Power calculations revealed that a difference in circulating calcium levels of 0.05 mmol/l, a difference in DXA bone density of 24 mg, and a 1.6-fold difference in fracture rate could have been detected with a power of 80%. In conclusion, in a large cohort of elderly women the A986S polymorphism of the CASR gene was not found to be significant for calcium homeostasis or bone mass. It is questioned whether the polymorphism has any clinical significance for postmenopausal osteoporosis.