Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important crop for developed as well as underdevelopedcountries, especially those in the Indian sub-continent that contribute more than 60% to boththe global area and global production. The harsh environmental conditions under whichchickpeas are generally grown impose restrictions on the expression of genetic yield potential.In the present study, a number of different breeding approaches for the development ofgenotypes possessing multiple resistances to different biotic and abiotic stresses, coupled withenhanced productivity are reported. In one study, 90 genetically diverse genotypes (35medium-sized desi types, 35 bold-seeded desi types, 10 medium-sized kabuli types and 10bold-seeded kabuli types) were tested in several locations in the 2000–2002 seasons, underrainfed (dryland) conditions and with supplemental irrigation. The bold-seeded desi genotypesgave superior performance in the rainfed environment, while the bold-seeded kabuligenotypes outyielded the other cultivars under supplemental irrigation. From crosses betweenaccessions from geographically diverse sources, crosses between lines carrying multiple diseaseresistances, and crosses between the cultivated chickpea and the wild species, C. reticulatum,23 selections were tested for yield and resistance to multiple stresses at variouslocations in northern and central India. From the crosses between geographically diverseparents, six high-yielding kabuli genotypes with wide adaptation and drought tolerancewere identified. Pyramiding genes for multiple resistances proved useful in identifyingeight lines possessing multiple disease resistance. Introgressing wild genes generated ninegenotypes with high yield potential, resistance to soil-borne diseases and adaptation towater-limited environments. We conclude that high productivity, multiple resistance andwide adaptability can be achieved simultaneously by using potentially complementaryapproaches.