Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are conditions in which the immune system cannot distinguish self from non-self and, as a result, tissue injury occurs primarily due to the action of various inflammatory mediators. Different immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of patients with ADs, but some clinical cases develop resistance to currently available therapies. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) is an approved agent for first-line therapy of people with multiple myeloma. BTZ has been shown to improve the symptoms of different ADs in animal models and ameliorated symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and autoimmune hematologic diseases that were nonresponsive to conventional therapies. Proteasome inhibition provides a potent strategy for treating ADs. BTZ represents a proteasome inhibitor that can potentially be used to treat AD patients resistant to conventional therapies.