The combined use of architectural and stress technologies in osteological studies is starting to provide the basic biomechanical underpinnings to both evolutionary and applied medical investigations of bone. The architectural investigations, though tested using invasive methods, are aimed at non-invasive ways of obtaining information from radiographs of bones, fossils and people. They include optical (Fourier) data analysis (ODA) and computational Fourier transformations (FFT). The stress studies, though initially involving older techniques such as photoelastic stress analysis, now employ finite element analysis (FEA) and, most recently, fast Lagrangian analysis of continua (FLAC). Taken together, these methods are capable of providing more detailed knowledge of bone form and function that is important (a) in revealing functional adaptation in evolutionary studies of fossils and (b) for making early diagnosis and understanding pathological fractures in the late stages of osteoporosis.