Bone disease of prematurity is a complication of preterm birth. This article reviews the aetiology, treatment and prevention of bone disease of prematurity. Provision of adequate nutrition including energy, protein, and minerals is required for both treatment and prevention. Screening for bone disease is controversial. White further research is required quantitative ultrasound appears to be a promising tool. for screening and monitoring response to therapy. Further research is needed before recommending physical activity to prevent bone disease of Prematurity. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.