Black soldier fly fertilisers by bioconversion of livestock waste: Farmers’ perceptions and willingness-to-pay

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Inappropriate treatment of agricultural residue streams, including livestock manures, can impose environmental, social, and economic costs on producers and general society. Bioconversion of livestock wastes with black soldier fly (BSF) can recover valuable macro- and micronutrients that could be turned into feed or fertiliser products, thus closing the loop and enhancing circularity of agricultural systems. Although the global BSF industry is expected to grow, there is little information about the market perceptions for BSF products. We investigated the market potential for BSF-derived fertilisers, using a discrete choice experiment survey of Australian farmers. The research also evaluates how farmers currently use fertilisers. Results show that farmers agreed that BSF-derived fertilisers will improve the environmental sustainability of the agricultural industry and that they would be interested in using the product. The choice experiment estimated farmers' willingness to pay for different product characteristics (form, organic carbon content, and nutrient content). Farmers preferred BSF-derived fertilisers in granulated form. Willingness to pay for the product increased with higher organic carbon and NPK content. Producers who self-identified as organic, biodynamic, or ‘regenerative’ farmers were willing to pay more than ‘conventional’ farmers. These results should inform further feasibility studies and marketing efforts of BSF producers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number137271
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jul 2023


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