A new resistance-breaking strain of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) overcomes TuMV resistance genes that currently suppress spread of this virus in Brassica napus crops in the Liverpool Plains region of eastern Australia. Isolates 12.1 and 12.5 of this strain and three other isolates in TuMV pathotypes 1 (NSW-2), 7 (NSW-1), and 8 (WA-Ap1) were inoculated to plants of 19 B. napus cultivars and one breeding line. All plants of these cultivars and the breeding line proved susceptible to 12.1 and 12.5 but developed only resistance phenotypes with WA-Ap1 or mostly resistance phenotypes with NSW-1 and NSW-2. Five different TuMV resistance phenotypes occurred either alone or segregating in different combinations. When these five isolates were inoculated to plants of nine other crop or wild Brassicaceae spp. and four indicator hosts in other families, 12.1 and 12.5 resembled the other three in inducing TuMV resistance phenotypes in some Brassicaceae spp. but not others, and by inducing extreme resistance phenotypes in all inoculated plants of B. oleracea var. botrytis and Raphanus sativus. Therefore, the overall resistance-breaking properties of 12.1 and 12.5 were restricted to B. napus. When isolates 12.1, 12.5, and WA-Ap1 and additional Australian isolate WA-EP1 were sequenced and complete genomes of each compared, 12.1 and 12.5 grouped separately from the other 2 and from all 23 Australian isolates with complete genomes sequenced previously. In addition, there was evidence for at least six separate TuMV introductions to Australia. Spread of this B. napus resistance-breaking strain poses a significant threat to the B. napus oilseed industry. Breeding B. napus cultivars with resistance to this strain constitutes a critical priority for B. napus breeding programs in Australia and elsewhere.