Microbes synthesize cell-associated nanoparticles (NPs) and utilize their physicochemical properties to produce energy under unfavorable metabolic conditions. Iron sulfide (FeS) NPs are ubiquitous and are predominantly biosynthesized by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). However, the biological role of FeS NPs in SRB remains understudied. Now, conductive FeS NPs function is demonstrated as an electron conduit enabling Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, an SRB strain, to utilize solid-state electron donors via direct electron uptake. After forming FeS NPs on the cell surface, D. vulgaris initiated current generation coupled with sulfate reduction on electrodes poised at −0.4 V versus standard hydrogen electrode. Single-cell activity analysis showed that the electron uptake and metabolic rate via FeS NPs in D. vulgaris were about sevenfold higher than those via native cell-surface proteins in other SRB.