Biofabrication and Signaling Strategies for Tendon/Ligament Interfacial Tissue Engineering

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25 Citations (Scopus)


Tendons and ligaments (TL) have poor healing capability, and for serious injuries like tears or ruptures, surgical intervention employing autografts or allografts is usually required. Current tissue replacements are nonideal and can lead to future problems such as high retear rates, poor tissue integration, or heterotopic ossification. Alternatively, tissue engineering strategies are being pursued using biodegradable scaffolds. As tendons connect muscle and bone and ligaments attach bones, the interface of TL with other tissues represent complex structures, and this intricacy must be considered in tissue engineered approaches. In this paper, we review recent biofabrication and signaling strategies for biodegradable polymeric scaffolds for TL interfacial tissue engineering. First, we discuss biodegradable polymeric scaffolds based on the fabrication techniques as well as the target tissue application. Next, we consider the effect of signaling factors, including cell culture, growth factors, and biophysical stimulation. Then, we discuss human clinical studies on TL tissue healing using commercial synthetic scaffolds that have occurred over the past decade. Finally, we highlight the challenges and future directions for biodegradable scaffolds in the field of TL and interface tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)383-399
Number of pages17
JournalACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2021


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