The use of personal protective equipment (PPE), face masks and ventilation are key strategies to control the transmission of respiratory viruses. However, most PPE provides physical protection that only partially prevents the transmission of viral particles. Here, we develop textiles with integrated peptide binders that capture viral particles. We fuse peptides capable of binding the receptor domain of the spike protein on the SARS-CoV-2 capsid to the cellulose-binding domain from the Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase II protein. The hybrid peptides can be attached to the cellulose fibres in cotton and capture SARS-CoV-2 viral particles with high affinity. The resulting bioengineered cotton captures 114,000 infective virus particles per cm2 and reduces onwards SARS-CoV-2 infection of cells by 500-fold. The hybrid peptides could be easily modified to capture and control the spread of other infectious pathogens or for attachment to different materials. We anticipate the use of bioengineered protective textiles in PPE, facemasks, ventilation, and furnishings will provide additional protection to the airborne or fomite transmission of viruses.