Seven landraces of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] were assessed for genetic variability in total proteins, protein fractions viz. albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and DNA polymorphism using sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAP) markers. The solubility-based protein fractionation data indicated that the salt soluble fraction (globulin) and water-soluble fraction (albumin) proteins were the predominant fractions in cowpea seeds comprising 45–50.3% and 31.2–35.5% of total soluble proteins, respectively. The electrophoretic pattern revealed the molecular heterogeneity among total proteins as well as different protein fractions. The molecular weights of protein bands obtained by SDS-PAGE varied between 10 to 250, 15 to 110, 15 to 150, and 15 to 130 kDa for total proteins, albumins, globulins, and glutelins, respectively. A large number of bands were found common to the various landraces, indicative of their close relationship with one another. However, a few bands distinctive to some specific landraces were also detected, indicating varietal differences. A 34 SRAP primer pair combination generated a total of 1003 amplicons (loci) showed 100% polymorphism with an average of 0.93 polymorphism information content (PIC) value. Landraces displayed an average 0.50 similarity coefficient which clustered the landraces corresponding to their growth habit in main clusters and to their geographical origin in subcultures. Molecular and biochemical analysis were correlated with a medium level (Mantel test, r = 0.56, P < 0.02). These findings revealed that seed proteins and DNA polymorphism provide valuable information regarding the variability among landraces and this information could be utilized for breeding purposes in the enhancement of protein quality and quantity in grain legumes.