Biochar Derived from Urban Green Waste Can Enhance the Removal of Cd from Water and Reduce Soil Cd Bioavailability

Xiang Li, Paramsothy Jeyakumar, Nanthi Bolan, Lianxi Huang, Muhammad Saqib Rashid, Zhongzhen Liu, Lan Wei, Hailong Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Web of Science)


The beneficial utilization of potentially increasing urban green waste (UGW) is critical for sustainable urban development in China. In this study, UGW was pyrolyzed at different temperatures, and the resulting biochar was used to amend Cd-contaminated soils to grow cabbage. Our results showed that the Cd adsorption capacity of UGW-biochar was positively correlated with the surface area, O/C, and (O+N)/C value of biochar. Furthermore, UGW-biochar was incorporated into three Cd-contaminated soils, including one acidic soil and two neutral soils, to assess its impact on the availability of Cd. The most substantial reduction in the concentration of available Cd was observed in the acidic soil, of the three tested soils. In the neutral soils, a more substantial reduction was found in the heavily Cd-contaminated soil compared to the lightly Cd-contaminated soil. UGW-biochar amendments to the three Cd-contaminated soils resulted in an increase in the cabbage biomass in acidic soil, whereas in neutral soils, it increased in lightly contaminated soils but decreased in heavily contaminated soils. Additionally, the Cd bioaccumulation factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF), and removal efficiency (RE), as impacted by the biochar application, were calculated in the lightly Cd-contaminated soil–cabbage system. The BCF decreased from 5.84 to 3.80 as the dosage of the UGW-biochar increased from 0% to 3%, indicating that the UGW-biochar immobilized Cd and reduced its bioaccumulation in cabbage roots. Based on our investigations, UGW-biochar effectively immobilizes Cd by reducing its mobility and bioavailability in a lightly contaminated environment matrix.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8
Number of pages15
Issue number1
Early online date21 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


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