Biallelic CPAMD8 Variants Are a Frequent Cause of Childhood and Juvenile Open-Angle Glaucoma

Owen M. Siggs, Emmanuelle Souzeau, Deepa A. Taranath, Andrew Dubowsky, Angela Chappell, Tiger Zhou, Shari Javadiyan, Jillian Nicholl, Lisa S. Kearns, Sandra E. Staffieri, Andrew Narita, James E.H. Smith, John Pater, Alex W. Hewitt, Jonathan B. Ruddle, James E. Elder, David A. Mackey, Kathryn P. Burdon, Jamie E. Craig

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Abstract

Purpose: Developmental abnormalities of the ocular anterior segment in some cases can lead to ocular hypertension and glaucoma. CPAMD8 is a gene of unknown function recently associated with ocular anterior segment dysgenesis, myopia, and ectopia lentis. We sought to assess the contribution of biallelic CPAMD8 variants to childhood and juvenile open-angle glaucoma. Design: Retrospective, multicenter case series. Participants: A total of 268 probands and their relatives with a diagnosis of childhood or juvenile open-angle glaucoma. Purpose: Developmental abnormalities of the ocular anterior segment in some cases can lead to ocular hypertension and glaucoma. CPAMD8 is a gene of unknown function recently associated with ocular anterior segment dysgenesis, myopia, and ectopia lentis. We sought to assess the contribution of biallelic CPAMD8 variants to childhood and juvenile open-angle glaucoma. Methods: Patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic assessment, with DNA from patients and their relatives subjected to genome, exome, or capillary sequencing. CPAMD8 RNA expression analysis was performed on tissues dissected from cadaveric human eyes. Main Outcome Measures: Diagnostic yield within a cohort of childhood and juvenile open-angle glaucoma, prevalence and risk of ophthalmic phenotypes, and relative expression of CPAMD8 in the human eye. Results: We identified rare (allele frequency <4×10−5) biallelic CPAMD8 variants in 5.7% (5/88) of probands with childhood glaucoma and 2.1% (2/96) of probands with juvenile open-angle glaucoma. When including family members, we identified 11 individuals with biallelic variants in CPAMD8 from 7 unrelated families. Nine of these individuals were diagnosed with glaucoma (9/11, 81.8%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 9.22±14.89 years, and all individuals with glaucoma required 1 or more incisional procedures to control high intraocular pressure. Iris abnormalities were observed in 9 of 11 individuals, cataract was observed in 8 of 11 individuals (72.7%), and retinal detachment was observed in 3 of 11 individuals (27.3%). CPAMD8 expression was highest in neural crest–derived tissues of the adult anterior segment, suggesting that CPAMD8 variation may cause malformation or obstruction of key drainage structures. Conclusions: Biallelic CPAMD8 variation was associated with a highly heterogeneous phenotype and in our cohorts was the second most common inherited cause of childhood glaucoma after CYP1B1 and juvenile open-angle glaucoma after MYOC. CPAMD8 sequencing should be considered in the investigation of both childhood and juvenile open-angle glaucoma, particularly when associated with iris abnormalities, cataract, or retinal detachment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)758-766
Number of pages9
JournalOphthalmology
Volume127
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020

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    Siggs, O. M., Souzeau, E., Taranath, D. A., Dubowsky, A., Chappell, A., Zhou, T., Javadiyan, S., Nicholl, J., Kearns, L. S., Staffieri, S. E., Narita, A., Smith, J. E. H., Pater, J., Hewitt, A. W., Ruddle, J. B., Elder, J. E., Mackey, D. A., Burdon, K. P., & Craig, J. E. (2020). Biallelic CPAMD8 Variants Are a Frequent Cause of Childhood and Juvenile Open-Angle Glaucoma. Ophthalmology, 127(6), 758-766. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.12.024