Between-meal sucrose-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glycaemia and lipid metabolism during prolonged sitting: A randomized controlled trial

Pia Varsamis, Melissa F. Formosa, Robyn N. Larsen, Medini Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Garry L. Jennings, Neale D. Cohen, Megan Grace, John A. Hawley, Brooke L. Devlin, Neville Owen, David W. Dunstan, Paddy C. Dempsey, Bronwyn A. Kingwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background & aims: Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with unfavourable health effects, including promotion of obesity. However, the acute effects of consuming SSBs on glucose and lipid metabolism remain to be characterized in a real-world, post-prandial context of prolonged sitting. We quantified the acute effects of between-meal SSB consumption compared with water, on glucose and lipid metabolism in habitual soft drink consumers during prolonged sitting. Methods: Twenty-eight overweight or obese young adults [15 males; 23 ± 3 (mean ± SD) years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 3.6 kg/m2) participated. During uninterrupted sitting and following standardized breakfast and lunch meals, each participant completed two 7-h conditions on separate days in a randomized, crossover design study. For each condition, participants consumed either a sucrose SSB or water mid-morning and mid-afternoon. Peak responses and total area under the curve (tAUC) over 7 h for blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were quantified and compared. Results: Compared to water, SSB consumption significantly increased the peak responses for blood glucose (20 ± 4% (mean ± SEM)), insulin (43 ± 15%) and C-peptide (21 ± 6%) concentrations. The tAUC for all these parameters was also increased by SSB consumption. The tAUC for triglycerides was 15 ± 5% lower after SSBs and this was driven by males (P < 0.05), as females showed no difference between conditions. The tAUC for NEFAs was 13 ± 5% lower after the SSB condition (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Between-meal SSB consumption significantly elevated plasma glucose responses, associated with a sustained elevation in plasma insulin throughout a day of prolonged sitting. The SSB-induced reduction in circulating triglycerides and NEFAs indicates significant modulation of lipid metabolism, particularly in males. These metabolic effects may contribute to the development of metabolic disease when SSB consumption is habitual and co-occurring with prolonged sitting. Clinical Trial Registry number: ACTRN12616000840482, https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12616000840482.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1536-1543
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Nutrition
Volume38
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019

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Beverages
Lipid Metabolism
Meals
Sucrose
Randomized Controlled Trials
Area Under Curve
Triglycerides
C-Peptide
Insulin
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Glucose
Cross-Over Studies
Blood Glucose
Water
Carbonated Beverages
Lunch
Breakfast
Metabolic Diseases
Registries
Young Adult

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Varsamis, P., Formosa, M. F., Larsen, R. N., Reddy-Luthmoodoo, M., Jennings, G. L., Cohen, N. D., ... Kingwell, B. A. (2019). Between-meal sucrose-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glycaemia and lipid metabolism during prolonged sitting: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition, 38(4), 1536-1543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.08.021
Varsamis, Pia ; Formosa, Melissa F. ; Larsen, Robyn N. ; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini ; Jennings, Garry L. ; Cohen, Neale D. ; Grace, Megan ; Hawley, John A. ; Devlin, Brooke L. ; Owen, Neville ; Dunstan, David W. ; Dempsey, Paddy C. ; Kingwell, Bronwyn A. / Between-meal sucrose-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glycaemia and lipid metabolism during prolonged sitting : A randomized controlled trial. In: Clinical Nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 38, No. 4. pp. 1536-1543.
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abstract = "Background & aims: Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with unfavourable health effects, including promotion of obesity. However, the acute effects of consuming SSBs on glucose and lipid metabolism remain to be characterized in a real-world, post-prandial context of prolonged sitting. We quantified the acute effects of between-meal SSB consumption compared with water, on glucose and lipid metabolism in habitual soft drink consumers during prolonged sitting. Methods: Twenty-eight overweight or obese young adults [15 males; 23 ± 3 (mean ± SD) years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 3.6 kg/m2) participated. During uninterrupted sitting and following standardized breakfast and lunch meals, each participant completed two 7-h conditions on separate days in a randomized, crossover design study. For each condition, participants consumed either a sucrose SSB or water mid-morning and mid-afternoon. Peak responses and total area under the curve (tAUC) over 7 h for blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were quantified and compared. Results: Compared to water, SSB consumption significantly increased the peak responses for blood glucose (20 ± 4{\%} (mean ± SEM)), insulin (43 ± 15{\%}) and C-peptide (21 ± 6{\%}) concentrations. The tAUC for all these parameters was also increased by SSB consumption. The tAUC for triglycerides was 15 ± 5{\%} lower after SSBs and this was driven by males (P < 0.05), as females showed no difference between conditions. The tAUC for NEFAs was 13 ± 5{\%} lower after the SSB condition (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Between-meal SSB consumption significantly elevated plasma glucose responses, associated with a sustained elevation in plasma insulin throughout a day of prolonged sitting. The SSB-induced reduction in circulating triglycerides and NEFAs indicates significant modulation of lipid metabolism, particularly in males. These metabolic effects may contribute to the development of metabolic disease when SSB consumption is habitual and co-occurring with prolonged sitting. Clinical Trial Registry number: ACTRN12616000840482, https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12616000840482.",
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Varsamis, P, Formosa, MF, Larsen, RN, Reddy-Luthmoodoo, M, Jennings, GL, Cohen, ND, Grace, M, Hawley, JA, Devlin, BL, Owen, N, Dunstan, DW, Dempsey, PC & Kingwell, BA 2019, 'Between-meal sucrose-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glycaemia and lipid metabolism during prolonged sitting: A randomized controlled trial' Clinical Nutrition, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1536-1543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.08.021

Between-meal sucrose-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glycaemia and lipid metabolism during prolonged sitting : A randomized controlled trial. / Varsamis, Pia; Formosa, Melissa F.; Larsen, Robyn N.; Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini; Jennings, Garry L.; Cohen, Neale D.; Grace, Megan; Hawley, John A.; Devlin, Brooke L.; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W.; Dempsey, Paddy C.; Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

In: Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 38, No. 4, 01.08.2019, p. 1536-1543.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Between-meal sucrose-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glycaemia and lipid metabolism during prolonged sitting

T2 - A randomized controlled trial

AU - Varsamis, Pia

AU - Formosa, Melissa F.

AU - Larsen, Robyn N.

AU - Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Medini

AU - Jennings, Garry L.

AU - Cohen, Neale D.

AU - Grace, Megan

AU - Hawley, John A.

AU - Devlin, Brooke L.

AU - Owen, Neville

AU - Dunstan, David W.

AU - Dempsey, Paddy C.

AU - Kingwell, Bronwyn A.

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - Background & aims: Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with unfavourable health effects, including promotion of obesity. However, the acute effects of consuming SSBs on glucose and lipid metabolism remain to be characterized in a real-world, post-prandial context of prolonged sitting. We quantified the acute effects of between-meal SSB consumption compared with water, on glucose and lipid metabolism in habitual soft drink consumers during prolonged sitting. Methods: Twenty-eight overweight or obese young adults [15 males; 23 ± 3 (mean ± SD) years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 3.6 kg/m2) participated. During uninterrupted sitting and following standardized breakfast and lunch meals, each participant completed two 7-h conditions on separate days in a randomized, crossover design study. For each condition, participants consumed either a sucrose SSB or water mid-morning and mid-afternoon. Peak responses and total area under the curve (tAUC) over 7 h for blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were quantified and compared. Results: Compared to water, SSB consumption significantly increased the peak responses for blood glucose (20 ± 4% (mean ± SEM)), insulin (43 ± 15%) and C-peptide (21 ± 6%) concentrations. The tAUC for all these parameters was also increased by SSB consumption. The tAUC for triglycerides was 15 ± 5% lower after SSBs and this was driven by males (P < 0.05), as females showed no difference between conditions. The tAUC for NEFAs was 13 ± 5% lower after the SSB condition (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Between-meal SSB consumption significantly elevated plasma glucose responses, associated with a sustained elevation in plasma insulin throughout a day of prolonged sitting. The SSB-induced reduction in circulating triglycerides and NEFAs indicates significant modulation of lipid metabolism, particularly in males. These metabolic effects may contribute to the development of metabolic disease when SSB consumption is habitual and co-occurring with prolonged sitting. Clinical Trial Registry number: ACTRN12616000840482, https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12616000840482.

AB - Background & aims: Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with unfavourable health effects, including promotion of obesity. However, the acute effects of consuming SSBs on glucose and lipid metabolism remain to be characterized in a real-world, post-prandial context of prolonged sitting. We quantified the acute effects of between-meal SSB consumption compared with water, on glucose and lipid metabolism in habitual soft drink consumers during prolonged sitting. Methods: Twenty-eight overweight or obese young adults [15 males; 23 ± 3 (mean ± SD) years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 3.6 kg/m2) participated. During uninterrupted sitting and following standardized breakfast and lunch meals, each participant completed two 7-h conditions on separate days in a randomized, crossover design study. For each condition, participants consumed either a sucrose SSB or water mid-morning and mid-afternoon. Peak responses and total area under the curve (tAUC) over 7 h for blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were quantified and compared. Results: Compared to water, SSB consumption significantly increased the peak responses for blood glucose (20 ± 4% (mean ± SEM)), insulin (43 ± 15%) and C-peptide (21 ± 6%) concentrations. The tAUC for all these parameters was also increased by SSB consumption. The tAUC for triglycerides was 15 ± 5% lower after SSBs and this was driven by males (P < 0.05), as females showed no difference between conditions. The tAUC for NEFAs was 13 ± 5% lower after the SSB condition (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Between-meal SSB consumption significantly elevated plasma glucose responses, associated with a sustained elevation in plasma insulin throughout a day of prolonged sitting. The SSB-induced reduction in circulating triglycerides and NEFAs indicates significant modulation of lipid metabolism, particularly in males. These metabolic effects may contribute to the development of metabolic disease when SSB consumption is habitual and co-occurring with prolonged sitting. Clinical Trial Registry number: ACTRN12616000840482, https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12616000840482.

KW - Cardiometabolic disease

KW - Glucose

KW - Lipids

KW - Obesity

KW - Overweight

KW - Sugar-sweetened beverages

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DO - 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.08.021

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