Behaviours that contribute to pharmacist professionalism: a scoping review

Deanna Mill, Amy Theresa Page, Jacinta Johnson, Renae Lloyd, Sandra Salter, Kenneth Lee, Liza Seubert, Rhonda Clifford, Danielle D’Lima

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objectives Clearly understanding and describing professional behaviours of pharmacists allows the profession, researchers and policy-makers to observe and monitor the professionalism of pharmacists, and design interventions to improve it where needed. The primary objective of this review was to identify which behaviours are discussed to contribute to professionalism in registered pharmacists in peer-reviewed literature. The secondary objective was to review the identified behaviours using a behavioural specification framework to understand how they are expressed.Design A scoping literature review was conducted.Data sources An electronic database search of Scopus, Embase, PsycINFO, PsychArticles, Emcare and Medline limited to articles published in English from 1 January 2000 to 21 October 2022 was conducted.Eligibility criteria Eligible articles contributed behaviourally relevant content with reference to registered pharmacists’ professionalism.Data extraction and synthesis Extracted behaviourally relevant content was subject to researcher’s familiarisation, then deductive coding to one of two overarching definitions of technical or non-technical behaviour. Data were then inductively coded through assignment of a descriptive code to identify categories of professional behaviour within these two overarching types of behaviour.Results Seven articles were identified and included in the final analysis. From the extracted behaviourally relevant content, 18 categories of behaviours were identified. All articles identified behaviours in categories titled ‘establishes effective relationships’ and ‘complies with regulations codes and operating procedures’. Identified behaviours were often broadly described and merged with descriptions of influences on them and broader outcomes that they contribute to.Conclusions Behaviours described to contribute to pharmacists’ professionalism in the literature are broad and non-specific.Data are available on reasonable request. The datasets generate and used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere070265
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jun 2023


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