Objectives: The Chars Tobacco Assessment Project 2018 is a holistic survey conducted in the chars (riverine islands) of Gaibandha in Northern Bangladesh, covering 985 households over 24 clusters. The survey was conducted with two objectives: (1) to assess levels of tobacco consumption and evaluate prevailing socio-economic, behavioral and health status of the chars population, and (2) to look at the effectiveness of advocacy campaigns to reduce tobacco consumption through behavioral nudges via randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in rural Bangladesh. The study site was purposively chosen due to its high tobacco consumption rate, and the geographical segregation of the chars aided in reducing spillovers for RCT design. Data description: In addition to detailed information on tobacco (smoking and smokeless) consumption and perception, data was collected on: household composition, housing and plot ownership, consumption, risks and shocks coping, dowry, farm production, loans, savings and lending, labor income, asset holdings, migration and remittance, anthropometry, respiratory diseases, co-morbidities, reproductive history, risk and time preference. Unique to the dataset are carbon monoxide readings for accurate short term smoking measurement and FEV1 and PEF values for identification of long term lung damage. The data is representative only for the chars of Gaibandha.