Availability and management of manganese and water in bauxite residue revegetation

Mark James Gherardi

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

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Abstract

[Truncated abstract] Industrial processing to refine alumina from bauxite ore produces millions of tonnes of refining residue each year in Australia. Revegetation of bauxite residue sand (BRS) is problematic for a number of reasons. Harsh chemical conditions caused by residual NaOH from ore digestion mean plants must overcome extremely high pH (initially >12), saline and sodic conditions. At such high pH, manganese (Mn) is rapidly oxidised from Mn2+ to Mn4+. Plants can take up only Mn2+. Thus, Mn deficiency is common in plants used for direct BRS revegetation, and broadcast Mn fertilisers have low residual value. Added to this, physical conditions of low water-holding capacity and a highly compactable structure make BRS unfavourable for productive plant growth without constant and large inputs of water as well as Mn. However, environmental regulations stipulate that the residue disposal area at Pinjarra, Western Australia, be revegetated to conform with surrounding land uses. The major land use of the area is pasture for grazing stock. Hence, pasture revegetation with minimum requirement for fertiliser and water application is desirable. This thesis investigates a number of avenues with potential for maintaining a productive pasture system on BRS whilst reducing the current level of Mn fertiliser and irrigation input. Emphasis was placed on elucidation of chemical and physical factors affecting Mn availability to plants in BRS
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Publication statusUnpublished - 2004

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land restoration
manganese
sand
water
pastures
land use
fertilizers
fertilizer requirements
environmental law
aluminum oxide
water requirement
refining
processing technology
water holding capacity
Western Australia
bauxite
digestion
plant growth
grazing
irrigation

Cite this

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title = "Availability and management of manganese and water in bauxite residue revegetation",
abstract = "[Truncated abstract] Industrial processing to refine alumina from bauxite ore produces millions of tonnes of refining residue each year in Australia. Revegetation of bauxite residue sand (BRS) is problematic for a number of reasons. Harsh chemical conditions caused by residual NaOH from ore digestion mean plants must overcome extremely high pH (initially >12), saline and sodic conditions. At such high pH, manganese (Mn) is rapidly oxidised from Mn2+ to Mn4+. Plants can take up only Mn2+. Thus, Mn deficiency is common in plants used for direct BRS revegetation, and broadcast Mn fertilisers have low residual value. Added to this, physical conditions of low water-holding capacity and a highly compactable structure make BRS unfavourable for productive plant growth without constant and large inputs of water as well as Mn. However, environmental regulations stipulate that the residue disposal area at Pinjarra, Western Australia, be revegetated to conform with surrounding land uses. The major land use of the area is pasture for grazing stock. Hence, pasture revegetation with minimum requirement for fertiliser and water application is desirable. This thesis investigates a number of avenues with potential for maintaining a productive pasture system on BRS whilst reducing the current level of Mn fertiliser and irrigation input. Emphasis was placed on elucidation of chemical and physical factors affecting Mn availability to plants in BRS",
keywords = "Abandoned mined lands reclamation, Western Australia, Pinjarra, Bauxite mines, Environmental aspects, Mine soils, Soils, Manganese content, Managenese deficiency diseases in plants, Plants, Effect of hydrogen-ion concentration on, Alfalfa, Fertilizers, Revegetation, Soil moisture, Plants, Effect of soil moisture on, Water availability, Bauxite residue, Root exudites, Lucerne Medicago sativa",
author = "Gherardi, {Mark James}",
year = "2004",
language = "English",

}

Availability and management of manganese and water in bauxite residue revegetation. / Gherardi, Mark James.

2004.

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

TY - THES

T1 - Availability and management of manganese and water in bauxite residue revegetation

AU - Gherardi, Mark James

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - [Truncated abstract] Industrial processing to refine alumina from bauxite ore produces millions of tonnes of refining residue each year in Australia. Revegetation of bauxite residue sand (BRS) is problematic for a number of reasons. Harsh chemical conditions caused by residual NaOH from ore digestion mean plants must overcome extremely high pH (initially >12), saline and sodic conditions. At such high pH, manganese (Mn) is rapidly oxidised from Mn2+ to Mn4+. Plants can take up only Mn2+. Thus, Mn deficiency is common in plants used for direct BRS revegetation, and broadcast Mn fertilisers have low residual value. Added to this, physical conditions of low water-holding capacity and a highly compactable structure make BRS unfavourable for productive plant growth without constant and large inputs of water as well as Mn. However, environmental regulations stipulate that the residue disposal area at Pinjarra, Western Australia, be revegetated to conform with surrounding land uses. The major land use of the area is pasture for grazing stock. Hence, pasture revegetation with minimum requirement for fertiliser and water application is desirable. This thesis investigates a number of avenues with potential for maintaining a productive pasture system on BRS whilst reducing the current level of Mn fertiliser and irrigation input. Emphasis was placed on elucidation of chemical and physical factors affecting Mn availability to plants in BRS

AB - [Truncated abstract] Industrial processing to refine alumina from bauxite ore produces millions of tonnes of refining residue each year in Australia. Revegetation of bauxite residue sand (BRS) is problematic for a number of reasons. Harsh chemical conditions caused by residual NaOH from ore digestion mean plants must overcome extremely high pH (initially >12), saline and sodic conditions. At such high pH, manganese (Mn) is rapidly oxidised from Mn2+ to Mn4+. Plants can take up only Mn2+. Thus, Mn deficiency is common in plants used for direct BRS revegetation, and broadcast Mn fertilisers have low residual value. Added to this, physical conditions of low water-holding capacity and a highly compactable structure make BRS unfavourable for productive plant growth without constant and large inputs of water as well as Mn. However, environmental regulations stipulate that the residue disposal area at Pinjarra, Western Australia, be revegetated to conform with surrounding land uses. The major land use of the area is pasture for grazing stock. Hence, pasture revegetation with minimum requirement for fertiliser and water application is desirable. This thesis investigates a number of avenues with potential for maintaining a productive pasture system on BRS whilst reducing the current level of Mn fertiliser and irrigation input. Emphasis was placed on elucidation of chemical and physical factors affecting Mn availability to plants in BRS

KW - Abandoned mined lands reclamation

KW - Western Australia

KW - Pinjarra

KW - Bauxite mines

KW - Environmental aspects

KW - Mine soils

KW - Soils

KW - Manganese content

KW - Managenese deficiency diseases in plants

KW - Plants, Effect of hydrogen-ion concentration on

KW - Alfalfa

KW - Fertilizers

KW - Revegetation

KW - Soil moisture

KW - Plants, Effect of soil moisture on

KW - Water availability

KW - Bauxite residue

KW - Root exudites

KW - Lucerne Medicago sativa

M3 - Doctoral Thesis

ER -