Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a highly conserved protein essential for DNA replication, repair and scaffold functions in the cytosol. Specific inhibition of PCNA in cancer cells is an attractive anti-cancer strategy. ATX-101 is a first-in-class drug targeting PCNA, primarily in cellular stress regulation. Multiple in vivo and in vitro investigations demonstrated anti-cancer activity of ATX-101 in many tumor types and a potentiating effect on the activity of anti-cancer therapies. Healthy cells were less affected. Based on preclinical data, a clinical phase 1 study was initiated. Twenty-five patients with progressive, late-stage solid tumors were treated with weekly ATX-101 infusions at four dose levels (20, 30, 45, 60 mg/m(2)). ATX-101 showed a favorable safety profile supporting that vital cellular functions are not compromised in healthy cells. Mild and moderate infusion-related reactions were observed in 64% of patients. ATX-101 was quickly cleared from blood with elimination half-lives of less than 30 min at all dose levels, probably due to both, a quick cell penetration and peptide digestion in serum, as demonstrated in vivo. No tumor responses were observed but stable disease was seen in 70% of the efficacy population (n = 20). Further studies have been initiated to provide evidence of efficacy.