Athletic induced iron deficiency: new insights into the role of inflammation, cytokines and hormones

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Abstract

Iron is utilised by the body for oxygen transport and energy production, and is therefore essential to athletic performance. Commonly, athletes are diagnosed as iron deficient, however, contrasting evidence exists as to the severity of deficiency and the effect on performance. Iron losses can result from a host of mechanisms during exercise such as hemolysis, hematuria, sweating and gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, recent research investigating the anemia of inflammation during states of chronic disease has allowed us to draw some comparisons between unhealthy populations and athletes. The acute-phase response is a well-recognised reaction to both exercise and disease. Elevated cytokine levels from such a response have been shown to increase the liver production of the hormone Hepcidin. Hepcidin up-regulation has a negative impact on the iron transport and absorption channels within the body, and may explain a potential new mechanism behind iron deficiency in athletes. This review will attempt to explore the current literature that exits in this new area of iron metabolism and exercise.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-391
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Volume103
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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Sports
Iron
Hormones
Cytokines
Inflammation
Athletes
Hepcidins
Exercise
Athletic Performance
Acute-Phase Reaction
Sweating
Hematuria
Hemolysis
Anemia
Chronic Disease
Up-Regulation
Hemorrhage
Oxygen
Liver
Research

Cite this

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title = "Athletic induced iron deficiency: new insights into the role of inflammation, cytokines and hormones",
abstract = "Iron is utilised by the body for oxygen transport and energy production, and is therefore essential to athletic performance. Commonly, athletes are diagnosed as iron deficient, however, contrasting evidence exists as to the severity of deficiency and the effect on performance. Iron losses can result from a host of mechanisms during exercise such as hemolysis, hematuria, sweating and gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, recent research investigating the anemia of inflammation during states of chronic disease has allowed us to draw some comparisons between unhealthy populations and athletes. The acute-phase response is a well-recognised reaction to both exercise and disease. Elevated cytokine levels from such a response have been shown to increase the liver production of the hormone Hepcidin. Hepcidin up-regulation has a negative impact on the iron transport and absorption channels within the body, and may explain a potential new mechanism behind iron deficiency in athletes. This review will attempt to explore the current literature that exits in this new area of iron metabolism and exercise.",
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AB - Iron is utilised by the body for oxygen transport and energy production, and is therefore essential to athletic performance. Commonly, athletes are diagnosed as iron deficient, however, contrasting evidence exists as to the severity of deficiency and the effect on performance. Iron losses can result from a host of mechanisms during exercise such as hemolysis, hematuria, sweating and gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, recent research investigating the anemia of inflammation during states of chronic disease has allowed us to draw some comparisons between unhealthy populations and athletes. The acute-phase response is a well-recognised reaction to both exercise and disease. Elevated cytokine levels from such a response have been shown to increase the liver production of the hormone Hepcidin. Hepcidin up-regulation has a negative impact on the iron transport and absorption channels within the body, and may explain a potential new mechanism behind iron deficiency in athletes. This review will attempt to explore the current literature that exits in this new area of iron metabolism and exercise.

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