Astrometrically registered maps of H2O and SiO masers toward VX Sagittarii

Dong Hwan Yoon, Se Hyung Cho, Youngjoo Yun, Yoon Kyung Choi, Richard Dodson, María Rioja, Jaeheon Kim, Hiroshi Imai, Dongjin Kim, Haneul Yang, Do Young Byun

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21 Citations (Scopus)


The supergiant VX Sagittarii is a strong emitter of both H2O and SiO masers. However, previous VLBI observations have been performed separately, which makes it difficult to spatially trace the outward transfer of the material consecutively. Here we present the astrometrically registered, simultaneous maps of 22.2 GHz H2O and 43.1/42.8/86.2/129.3 GHz SiO masers toward VX Sagittarii. The H2O masers detected above the dust-forming layers have an asymmetric distribution. The multi-transition SiO masers are nearly circular ring, suggesting spherically symmetric wind within a few stellar radii. These results provide the clear evidence that the asymmetry in the outflow is enhanced after the smaller molecular gas clump transform into the inhomogeneous dust layers. The 129.3 GHz maser arises from the outermost region compared to that of 43.1/42.8/86.2 GHz SiO masers. The ring size of the 129.3 GHz maser is maximized around the optical maximum, suggesting that raDiative pumping is dominant.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2534
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018


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