Purpose: To examine the association of strength training (ST) activity with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in Australian adults. Methods: On the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test, IGM (which includes impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes), was assessed in 5831 adults (mean age = 56.0 T 12.7 yr) without clinically diagnosed diabetes who participated in the 2004-2005 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Meeting the current ST guideline was based on reporting ST at least two times per week (frequency) or ≥40 min·wk-1 in total (duration). Multiple logistic regression analyses examined associations of self-reported ST frequency and duration with IGM. Results: After adjustment for known confounding factors and total moderate-to vigorous-intensity leisure time exercise, the odds ratio (OR) of IGM was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59-0.91, P 0.005) in those who met the ST frequency guideline (two or more times per week) and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.55-0.87, P ≤ 0.01) in those who met the ST duration guideline (Q40 minwk-1). Those who achieved both the recommended frequency and duration of ST had 24% lower odds of IGM. There was also evidence that a moderate frequency (once a week) and duration (10-39 minwk-1) of ST reduced the odds of IGM (OR frequency = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.51-0.81, P ≤ 0.01; OR duration = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.52-1.00, P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: These findings support the importance of including ST activity, at a frequency of at least once per week, within exercise management recommendations for the maintenance of favorable metabolic health, particularly as it may contribute to reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine.