Limited data exist regarding the impact of prevalent vascular disease after live-donor kidney transplantation. We aimed to determine the associations between the number of prevalent vascular diseases, allograft, and patient outcomes following live-donor transplantation. This cohort study used data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. Rates between recipients of live-donor kidney transplants ± prevalent vascular disease prior to transplantation were calculated. The associations between vascular disease, allograft failure, and all-cause mortality were assessed using Cox regression modeling. Kaplan–Meier proportions were used to calculate all-cause mortality and death with a function graft stratified by vascular disease burden. Of 4742 live-donor recipients, 428 (9%) and 84 (2%) had prevalent vascular disease at 1 and ≥2 sites, respectively. Compared to recipients without vascular disease, the respective adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for patients with vascular disease at 1 and ≥2 sites were 1.78 (1.41–2.25) and 3.02 (2.03–4.50) for all-cause mortality; and 1.54 (1.26–1.88) and 2.28 (1.54–3.38) for allograft failure. All-cause mortality in recipients with vascular disease at 0, 1 and ≥2 sites was 0.028 (0.025, 0.031), 0.090 (0.073, 0.106) and 0.247 (0.196, 0.282) over the first 5-year post-transplant. There was an incremental association between the number of prevalent vascular disease sites and risk of allograft failure and all-cause mortality in live-donor kidney transplant recipients.