Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society. Introduction: The objective of the study was to examine post hoc associations between plasma sphingolipids and lipoprotein kinetics in men with the metabolic syndrome after rosuvastatin treatment. Materials and Methods: Plasma sphingolipid profiling, determined by tandem mass spectrometry, was performed in a randomized, double-blind, triple-crossover trial (n = 12) of 5-week treatment periods with placebo or rosuvastatin (10 or 40 mg/d) with 2-week washouts between treatments. Results and Discussion: Baseline plasma ceramides were associated with very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein (apo)-B-100 concentration (r = 0.58, P <.05) and inversely with VLDL apoB-100 fractional catabolic rate (FCR; r = -0.67, P = .02). Posttreatment changes with rosuvastatin (40 mg/d) in plasma ceramides were inversely associated with VLDL apoB-100 FCR (r = -0.62, P = .03) independent of changes in plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteincholesterol. By contrast, baseline and postrosuvastatin treatment plasma sphingomyelin levels were not associated with apoB-100 kinetics. Plasma ceramides and sphingomyelin were not associated with the kinetics or concentrations of high-density lipoprotein apoA-I, and low-density lipoprotein apoB. In the metabolic syndrome, the ability of rosuvastatin to increase VLDL apoB-100 FCR may reflect ceramide-specific mechanistic actions and/or sphingolipid exchange.