Association of maternal diet, micronutrient status, and milk volume with milk micronutrient concentrations in Indonesian mothers at 2 and 5 months postpartum

Rosalind S. Gibson, Sofa Rahmannia, Aly Diana, Claudia Leong, Jillian J. Haszard, Daniela Hampel, Malcolm Reid, Juergen Erhardt, Aghnia Husnayiani Suryanto, Wina Nur Sofiah, Annisha Fathonah, Setareh Shahab-Ferdows, Lindsay H. Allen, Lisa A. Houghton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Maternal micronutrient deficits during preconception and pregnancy may persist during lactation and compromise human milk composition.

OBJECTIVE: We measured micronutrient concentrations in human milk and investigated their association with maternal micronutrient intakes, status, and milk volume.

METHODS: Infant milk intake (measured via a deuterium dose-to-mother technique), milk micronutrient and fat concentrations, and maternal micronutrient intakes were assessed at 2 and 5 mo postpartum in 212 Indonesian lactating mother-infant pairs. Maternal hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol binding protein (RBP), zinc, selenium, and vitamin B-12 were measured at 5 mo (n = 163). Multivariate or mixed effects regression examined associations of milk micronutrient concentrations with maternal micronutrient intakes, status, and milk volume.

RESULTS: Prevalence of anemia (15%), and iron (15% based on body iron), selenium (2.5%), and vitamin B-12 deficiency (0%) were low compared with deficiencies of zinc (60%) and vitamin A (34%). The prevalence of inadequate intakes was >50% for 7 micronutrients at 2 and 5 mo. Median milk concentrations for most micronutrients were below reference values, and nearly all declined between 2 and 5 mo postpartum and were not associated substantially with milk volume (except for β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin). At 5 mo postpartum, associations between maternal micronutrient status and corresponding milk concentrations reported as mean percentage difference in human milk concentration for each unit higher maternal biomarker were significant for hemoglobin (1.9%), iron biomarkers (ranging from 0.4 to 7%), RBP (35%), selenium (70%), and vitamin B-12 (0.1%), yet for maternal intakes only a positive association with β-carotene existed.

CONCLUSIONS: Most milk micronutrient concentrations declined during lactation, independent of changes in human milk production, and few were associated with maternal micronutrient intakes. The significant associations between maternal biomarkers and milk micronutrient concentrations at 5 mo warrant further study to investigate whether the declines in milk micronutrients are linked to shifts in maternal status.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1039-1050
Number of pages12
JournalThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume112
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes

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